Journal Article•

# Manifold Regularization: A Geometric Framework for Learning from Labeled and Unlabeled Examples

TL;DR: A semi-supervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a general-purpose learner is proposed and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are used to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms.

Abstract: We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semi-supervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a general-purpose learner. Some transductive graph learning algorithms and standard methods including support vector machines and regularized least squares can be obtained as special cases. We use properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms. As a result (in contrast to purely graph-based approaches) we obtain a natural out-of-sample extension to novel examples and so are able to handle both transductive and truly semi-supervised settings. We present experimental evidence suggesting that our semi-supervised algorithms are able to use unlabeled data effectively. Finally we have a brief discussion of unsupervised and fully supervised learning within our general framework.

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TL;DR: A scalable approach for semi-supervised learning on graph-structured data that is based on an efficient variant of convolutional neural networks which operate directly on graphs which outperforms related methods by a significant margin.

Abstract: We present a scalable approach for semi-supervised learning on graph-structured data that is based on an efficient variant of convolutional neural networks which operate directly on graphs. We motivate the choice of our convolutional architecture via a localized first-order approximation of spectral graph convolutions. Our model scales linearly in the number of graph edges and learns hidden layer representations that encode both local graph structure and features of nodes. In a number of experiments on citation networks and on a knowledge graph dataset we demonstrate that our approach outperforms related methods by a significant margin.

8,285 citations

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TL;DR: This work proposes a novel dimensionality reduction framework for reducing the distance between domains in a latent space for domain adaptation and proposes both unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction approaches, which can dramatically reduce thedistance between domain distributions by projecting data onto the learned transfer components.

Abstract: Domain adaptation allows knowledge from a source domain to be transferred to a different but related target domain. Intuitively, discovering a good feature representation across domains is crucial. In this paper, we first propose to find such a representation through a new learning method, transfer component analysis (TCA), for domain adaptation. TCA tries to learn some transfer components across domains in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space using maximum mean miscrepancy. In the subspace spanned by these transfer components, data properties are preserved and data distributions in different domains are close to each other. As a result, with the new representations in this subspace, we can apply standard machine learning methods to train classifiers or regression models in the source domain for use in the target domain. Furthermore, in order to uncover the knowledge hidden in the relations between the data labels from the source and target domains, we extend TCA in a semisupervised learning setting, which encodes label information into transfer components learning. We call this extension semisupervised TCA. The main contribution of our work is that we propose a novel dimensionality reduction framework for reducing the distance between domains in a latent space for domain adaptation. We propose both unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction approaches, which can dramatically reduce the distance between domain distributions by projecting data onto the learned transfer components. Finally, our approach can handle large datasets and naturally lead to out-of-sample generalization. The effectiveness and efficiency of our approach are verified by experiments on five toy datasets and two real-world applications: cross-domain indoor WiFi localization and cross-domain text classification.

2,568 citations

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TL;DR: In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and a matrix factorization is sought, which respects the graph structure, and the empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world problems.

Abstract: Matrix factorization techniques have been frequently applied in information retrieval, computer vision, and pattern recognition. Among them, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has received considerable attention due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of naturally occurring data whose representation may be parts based in the human brain. On the other hand, from the geometric perspective, the data is usually sampled from a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional ambient space. One then hopes to find a compact representation,which uncovers the hidden semantics and simultaneously respects the intrinsic geometric structure. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, called Graph Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GNMF), for this purpose. In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and we seek a matrix factorization, which respects the graph structure. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world problems.

1,668 citations

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TL;DR: This survey paper formally defines transfer learning, presents information on current solutions, and reviews applications applied toTransfer learning, which can be applied to big data environments.

Abstract: Machine learning and data mining techniques have been used in numerous real-world applications. An assumption of traditional machine learning methodologies is the training data and testing data are taken from the same domain, such that the input feature space and data distribution characteristics are the same. However, in some real-world machine learning scenarios, this assumption does not hold. There are cases where training data is expensive or difficult to collect. Therefore, there is a need to create high-performance learners trained with more easily obtained data from different domains. This methodology is referred to as transfer learning. This survey paper formally defines transfer learning, presents information on current solutions, and reviews applications applied to transfer learning. Lastly, there is information listed on software downloads for various transfer learning solutions and a discussion of possible future research work. The transfer learning solutions surveyed are independent of data size and can be applied to big data environments.

1,650 citations

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TL;DR: This introductory book presents some popular semi-supervised learning models, including self-training, mixture models, co-training and multiview learning, graph-based methods, and semi- supervised support vector machines, and discusses their basic mathematical formulation.

Abstract: Semi-supervised learning is a learning paradigm concerned with the study of how computers and natural systems such as humans learn in the presence of both labeled and unlabeled data. Traditionally, learning has been studied either in the unsupervised paradigm (e.g., clustering, outlier detection) where all the data is unlabeled, or in the supervised paradigm (e.g., classification, regression) where all the data is labeled.The goal of semi-supervised learning is to understand how combining labeled and unlabeled data may change the learning behavior, and design algorithms that take advantage of such a combination. Semi-supervised learning is of great interest in machine learning and data mining because it can use readily available unlabeled data to improve supervised learning tasks when the labeled data is scarce or expensive. Semi-supervised learning also shows potential as a quantitative tool to understand human category learning, where most of the input is self-evidently unlabeled. In this introductory book, we present some popular semi-supervised learning models, including self-training, mixture models, co-training and multiview learning, graph-based methods, and semi-supervised support vector machines. For each model, we discuss its basic mathematical formulation. The success of semi-supervised learning depends critically on some underlying assumptions. We emphasize the assumptions made by each model and give counterexamples when appropriate to demonstrate the limitations of the different models. In addition, we discuss semi-supervised learning for cognitive psychology. Finally, we give a computational learning theoretic perspective on semi-supervised learning, and we conclude the book with a brief discussion of open questions in the field.

1,603 citations

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##### References

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: Presenting a method for determining the necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of learning process, the author covers function estimates from small data pools, applying these estimations to real-life problems, and much more.

Abstract: A comprehensive look at learning and generalization theory. The statistical theory of learning and generalization concerns the problem of choosing desired functions on the basis of empirical data. Highly applicable to a variety of computer science and robotics fields, this book offers lucid coverage of the theory as a whole. Presenting a method for determining the necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of learning process, the author covers function estimates from small data pools, applying these estimations to real-life problems, and much more.

26,121 citations

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TL;DR: Locally linear embedding (LLE) is introduced, an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs that learns the global structure of nonlinear manifolds.

Abstract: Many areas of science depend on exploratory data analysis and visualization. The need to analyze large amounts of multivariate data raises the fundamental problem of dimensionality reduction: how to discover compact representations of high-dimensional data. Here, we introduce locally linear embedding (LLE), an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs. Unlike clustering methods for local dimensionality reduction, LLE maps its inputs into a single global coordinate system of lower dimensionality, and its optimizations do not involve local minima. By exploiting the local symmetries of linear reconstructions, LLE is able to learn the global structure of nonlinear manifolds, such as those generated by images of faces or documents of text.

13,822 citations

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TL;DR: An approach to solving dimensionality reduction problems that uses easily measured local metric information to learn the underlying global geometry of a data set and efficiently computes a globally optimal solution, and is guaranteed to converge asymptotically to the true structure.

Abstract: Scientists working with large volumes of high-dimensional data, such as global climate patterns, stellar spectra, or human gene distributions, regularly confront the problem of dimensionality reduction: finding meaningful low-dimensional structures hidden in their high-dimensional observations. The human brain confronts the same problem in everyday perception, extracting from its high-dimensional sensory inputs-30,000 auditory nerve fibers or 10(6) optic nerve fibers-a manageably small number of perceptually relevant features. Here we describe an approach to solving dimensionality reduction problems that uses easily measured local metric information to learn the underlying global geometry of a data set. Unlike classical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS), our approach is capable of discovering the nonlinear degrees of freedom that underlie complex natural observations, such as human handwriting or images of a face under different viewing conditions. In contrast to previous algorithms for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, ours efficiently computes a globally optimal solution, and, for an important class of data manifolds, is guaranteed to converge asymptotically to the true structure.

12,462 citations

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TL;DR: Eigenvalues and the Laplacian of a graph Isoperimetric problems Diameters and eigenvalues Paths, flows, and routing Eigen values and quasi-randomness

Abstract: Eigenvalues and the Laplacian of a graph Isoperimetric problems Diameters and eigenvalues Paths, flows, and routing Eigenvalues and quasi-randomness Expanders and explicit constructions Eigenvalues of symmetrical graphs Eigenvalues of subgraphs with boundary conditions Harnack inequalities Heat kernels Sobolev inequalities Advanced techniques for random walks on graphs Bibliography Index.

6,908 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a geometrically motivated algorithm for representing high-dimensional data, based on the correspondence between the graph Laplacian, the Laplace Beltrami operator on the manifold and the connections to the heat equation.

Abstract: One of the central problems in machine learning and pattern recognition is to develop appropriate representations for complex data. We consider the problem of constructing a representation for data lying on a low-dimensional manifold embedded in a high-dimensional space. Drawing on the correspondence between the graph Laplacian, the Laplace Beltrami operator on the manifold, and the connections to the heat equation, we propose a geometrically motivated algorithm for representing the high-dimensional data. The algorithm provides a computationally efficient approach to nonlinear dimensionality reduction that has locality-preserving properties and a natural connection to clustering. Some potential applications and illustrative examples are discussed.

6,475 citations