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Journal ArticleDOI

Manual matching of perceived surface orientation is affected by arm posture: evidence of calibration between proprioception and visual experience in near space

01 Jan 2012-Experimental Brain Research (Springer-Verlag)-Vol. 216, Iss: 2, pp 299-309

TL;DR: Two claims are supported: (1) manual orientation matching to visual surfaces is based on manual proprioception and (2) calibration between visual and proprioceptive experiences guarantees relatively accurate manual matching for surfaces within reach, despite systematic visual biases in perceived surface orientation.

AbstractProprioception of hand orientation (orientation production using the hand) is compared with manual matching of visual orientation (visual surface matching using the hand) in two experiments. In experiment 1, using self-selected arm postures, the proportions of wrist and elbow flexion spontaneously used to orient the pitch of the hand (20 and 80%, respectively) are relatively similar across both manual matching tasks and manual orientation production tasks for most participants. Proprioceptive error closely matched perceptual biases previously reported for visual orientation perception, suggesting calibration of proprioception to visual biases. A minority of participants, who attempted to use primarily wrist flexion while holding the forearm horizontal, performed poorly at the manual matching task, consistent with proprioceptive error caused by biomechanical constraints of their self-selected posture. In experiment 2, postural choices were constrained to primarily wrist or elbow flexion without imposing biomechanical constraints (using a raised forearm). Identical relative offsets were found between the two constraint groups in manual matching and manual orientation production. The results support two claims: (1) manual orientation matching to visual surfaces is based on manual proprioception and (2) calibration between visual and proprioceptive experiences guarantees relatively accurate manual matching for surfaces within reach, despite systematic visual biases in perceived surface orientation.

Topics: Visual perception (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Three different assessments of experimental demand indicate that even when the physical environment is naturalistic, and the goal of the main experimental manipulation was primarily concealed, artificial aspects of the social environment may still be primarily responsible for altered judgments of hill orientation.
Abstract: Experiments take place in a physical environment but also a social environment. Generalizability from experimental manipulations to more typical contexts may be limited by violations of ecological validity with respect to either the physical or the social environment. A replication and extension of a recent study (a blood glucose manipulation) was conducted to investigate the effects of experimental demand (a social artifact) on participant behaviors judging the geographical slant of a large-scale outdoor hill. Three different assessments of experimental demand indicate that even when the physical environment is naturalistic, and the goal of the main experimental manipulation was primarily concealed, artificial aspects of the social environment (such as an explicit requirement to wear a heavy backpack while estimating the slant of a hill) may still be primarily responsible for altered judgments of hill orientation.

107 citations


Cites background or methods from "Manual matching of perceived surfac..."

  • ...We used a custom inclinometer (Li & Durgin, 2011a) to measure hand orientation relative to a horizontal baseline, using the central axis of the hand to represent the response (Durgin, Li & Hajnal, 2010)....

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  • ...Moreover, free hand measures also have been found to be tightly correlated with verbal measures (Li & Durgin, 2011a)....

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  • ...The gesture was conducted with the hand occluded behind a screen and was measured with a custom inclinometer (Li & Durgin, 2011a)....

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  • ...Li and Durgin (2011a) showed that free hand manual matching techniques were correlated with verbal reports (see also Li & Durgin, 2011b)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that walking measures are calibrated for perceived egocentric distance, but that pantomime walking measures may suffer range compression.
Abstract: Two experiments are reported concerning the perception of ground extent in order to discover whether prior reports of anisotropy between frontal extents and extents in depth were consistent across different measures (visual matching and pantomime walking) and test environments (outdoor environments and virtual environments). In Experiment 1 it was found that depth extents of up to 7 m are indeed perceptually compressed relative to frontal extents in an outdoor environment, and that perceptual matching provided more precise estimates than did pantomime walking. In Experiment 2, similar anisotropies were found using similar tasks in a similar (but virtual) environment. In both experiments pantomime walking measures seemed to additionally compress the range of responses. Experiment 3 supported the hypothesis that range compression in walking measures of perceived distance might be due to proactive interference (memory contamination). It is concluded that walking measures are calibrated for perceived egocentric distance, but that pantomime walking measures may suffer range compression. Depth extents along the ground are perceptually compressed relative to frontal ground extents in a manner consistent with the angular scale expansion hypothesis.

37 citations


Cites background or methods from "Manual matching of perceived surfac..."

  • ...…that perceived gaze angles are exaggerated and that perceived egocentric distances are foreshortened, as we have mentioned above, there is no actual contradiction because action can be calibrated to visual experience (Harris, 1963; Held & Freedman, 1965; Li & Durgin, 2012b; Rieser et al., 1995)....

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  • ...Note, in contrast, that if an L-shape configuration (1.5 m x 1.5 m) were placed on the ground 9 m away, and the direct comparison of the frontal and depth legs were requested, participants might tend to switch to a judgment based on estimating the optical slant (Li & Durgin, 2012a)....

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  • ...The angular expansion hypothesis has been successfully applied to findings regarding the perception of egocentric extents, vertical extents and slant whereas other theories tend to have a more limited scope (see Li & Durgin, 2012a)....

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  • ...One, associated with shape tasks such as the aspect ratio task developed by Loomis et al. (1992), is quite a large anisotropy that seems to be related to the misperception of local optical slant (Li & Durgin, 2010, 2012a; Loomis & Philbeck, 1999; Loomis et al., 2002)....

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  • ...…hypothesis The angular expansion hypothesis is based on evidence that two angular variables, optical slant and the gaze declination, are perceptually exaggerated in the range most relevant in action space (Durgin and Li, 2011; Durgin et al., 2010; Li and Durgin, 2009, 2010, 2012a; Li et al., 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While the intrinsic bias hypothesis is proposed only for explaining distance biases, the angular expansion hypothesis provides accounts for a broader range of spatial biases.
Abstract: Two theories of distance perception—ie, the angular expansion hypothesis (Durgin and Li, 2011 Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73 1856-1870) and the intrinsic bias hypothesis (Ooi et al, 2006 Perception 35 605-624)—are compared. Both theories attribute exocentric distance foreshortening to an exaggeration in perceived slant, but their fundamental geometrical assumptions are very different. The intrinsic bias hypothesis assumes a constant bias in perceived geographical slant of the ground plane and predicts both perceived egocentric and exocentric distances are increasingly compressed. In contrast, the angular expansion hypothesis assumes exaggerations in perceived gaze angle and perceived optical slant. Because the bias functions of the two angular variables are different, it allows the angular expansion hypothesis to distinguish two types of distance foreshortening—the linear compression in perceived egocentric distance and the nonlinear compres- sion in perceived exocentric distance. While the intrinsic bias is proposed only for explaining distance biases, the angular expansion hypothesis provides accounts for a broader range of spatial biases.

32 citations


Book ChapterDOI
27 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The two main purposes of this chapter are to review past evidence for a systematic spatial bias in the perception of surface orientation (geographical slant), and to report two new experiments documenting this biases in the manual haptic system.
Abstract: The two main purposes of this chapter are to review past evidence for a systematic spatial bias in the perception of surface orientation (geographical slant), and to report two new experiments documenting this bias in the manual haptic system. Orientation is a fundamental perceptual property of surfaces that is relevant both for planning and implementing actions. Geographical slant refers to the orientation (inclination or pitch along its main axis) of a surface relative to the gravitationally-defined horizontal. It has long been known that hills appear visually steeper than they are (e.g., Ross, 1974). Only recently has it been documented that (1) there is also bias in the haptic perception of surface orientation (Hajnal et al., 2011), and that (2) similar visual and haptic biases even exist for small surfaces within reach (Durgin, Li & Hajnal, 2010).

18 citations


References
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"Manual matching of perceived surfac..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One possibility is that action is separated from conscious perception so that it is immune to visual distortion (Goodale and Milner 1992; Haffenden and Goodale 1998; Milner and Goodale 1995)....

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  • ...One possibility is that action is separated from conscious perception, so that it is immune to visual distortion (Goodale and Milner 1992; HaVenden and Goodale 1998; Milner and Goodale 1995)....

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"Manual matching of perceived surfac..." refers background in this paper

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"Manual matching of perceived surfac..." refers background in this paper

  • ...One possibility is that action is separated from conscious perception so that it is immune to visual distortion (Goodale and Milner 1992; Haffenden and Goodale 1998; Milner and Goodale 1995)....

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3,140 citations