scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIADV.ABE8406

Mapping Solar Magnetic Fields from the Photosphere to the Base of the Corona

Abstract: Routine ultraviolet imaging of the Sun's upper atmosphere shows the spectacular manifestation of solar activity; yet we remain blind to its main driver, the magnetic field. Here we report unprecedented spectropolarimetric observations of an active region plage and its surrounding enhanced network, showing circular polarization in ultraviolet (Mg II $h$ & $k$ and Mn I) and visible (Fe I) lines. We infer the longitudinal magnetic field from the photosphere to the very upper chromosphere. At the top of the plage chromosphere the field strengths reach more than 300 gauss, strongly correlated with the Mg II $k$ line core intensity and the electron pressure. This unique mapping shows how the magnetic field couples the different atmospheric layers and reveals the magnetic origin of the heating in the plage chromosphere.

... read more

Topics: Chromosphere (69%), Photosphere (58%), Plage (57%) ... read more
Citations
  More

11 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/AC081F
Abstract: We take a broad look at the problem of identifying the magnetic solar causes of space weather. With the lackluster performance of extrapolations based upon magnetic field measurements in the photosphere, we identify a region in the near UV part of the spectrum as optimal for studying the development of magnetic free energy over active regions. Using data from SORCE, Hubble Space Telescope, and SKYLAB, along with 1D computations of the near-UV (NUV) spectrum and numerical experiments based on the MURaM radiation-MHD and HanleRT radiative transfer codes, we address multiple challenges. These challenges are best met through a combination of near UV lines of bright \ion{Mg}{2}, and lines of \ion{Fe}{2} and \ion{Fe}{1} (mostly within the $4s-4p$ transition array) which form in the chromosphere up to $2\times10^4$ K. Both Hanle and Zeeman effects can in principle be used to derive vector magnetic fields. However, for any given spectral line the $\tau=1$ surfaces are generally geometrically corrugated owing to fine structure such as fibrils and spicules. By using multiple spectral lines spanning different optical depths, magnetic fields across nearly-horizontal surfaces can be inferred in regions of low plasma $\beta$, from which free energies, magnetic topology and other quantities can be derived. Based upon the recently-reported successful suborbital space measurements of magnetic fields with the CLASP2 instrument, we argue that a modest space-borne telescope will be able to make significant advances in the attempts to predict solar eruptions. Difficulties associated with blended lines are shown to be minor in an Appendix.

... read more

Topics: Chromosphere (56%), Space weather (53%), Photosphere (53%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ABF8AD
Philip G. Judge1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The plasma contributing to emission from the Sun between the cool chromosphere ($\le 10^4$K) and hot corona ($\ge 10^6$K) has been subjected to many different interpretations. Here we look at the magnetic structure of this transition region (TR) plasma, based upon the implications of CLASP2 data of an active region recently published by Ishikawa et al., and earlier IRIS and SDO data of quiet regions. Ishikawa et al. found that large areas of sunspot plages are magnetically unipolar as measured in the cores of \ion{Mg}{2} resonance lines, formed in the lower transition region under low plasma-$\beta$ conditions. Here we show that IRIS images in the line cores have fibrils which well aligned with the overlying coronal loop segments seen in the 171 A channel of SDO. When the TR emission in active regions arise from plasma magnetically and thermally connected to the corona, then the line cores can provide the first credible magnetic boundary conditions for force-free calculations extended to the corona. We also re-examine IRIS images of dynamic TR cool loops previously reported as a major contributor to transition region emission from the quiet Sun. Dynamic cool loops contribute only a small fraction of the total TR emission from the quiet Sun.

... read more

Topics: Solar transition region (62%), Chromosphere (59%), Coronal loop (58%) ... read more

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202141549
Abstract: Context. The correct modeling of the scattering polarization signals observed in several strong resonance lines requires taking partial frequency redistribution (PRD) phenomena into account. Aims. This work aims at assessing the impact and the range of validity of the angle-averaged AA approximation with respect to the general angle-dependent (AD) treatment of PRD effects in the modeling of scattering polarization in strong resonance lines, with focus on the solar Ca i 4227 {\AA} line. Methods. Spectral line polarization is modeled by solving the radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, under nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, taking PRD effects into account, in static one-dimensional semi-empirical atmospheric models presenting arbitrary magnetic fields. The problem is solved through a two-step approach. In step 1, the problem is solved for intensity only, considering a multi-level atom. In step 2, the problem is solved including polarization, considering a two-level atom with an unpolarized and infinitely sharp lower level, and fixing the lower level population calculated at step 1. Results. The results for the Ca i 4227 {\AA} line show a good agreement between the AA and AD calculations for the Q/I and U/I wings signals. However, AA calculations reveal an artificial trough in the line-core peak of the linear polarization profiles, whereas AD calculations show a sharper peak in agreement with observations. Conclusions. An AD treatment of PRD effects is essential to correctly model the line-core peak of the scattering polarization signal of the Ca i 4227 {\AA} line. By contrast, in the considered static case, the AA approximation seems to be suitable to model the wing scattering polarization lobes and their magnetic sensitivity through magneto-optical effects.

... read more

Topics: Linear polarization (57%), Scattering (54%), Radiative transfer (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202141549
Abstract: Context. The correct modeling of the scattering polarization signals observed in several strong resonance lines requires taking partial frequency redistribution (PRD) phenomena into account. Modeling scattering polarization with PRD effects is very computationally demanding and the simplifying angle-averaged (AA) approximation is therefore commonly applied.Aims. This work aims to assess the impact and the range of validity of the AA approximation with respect to the general angle-dependent (AD) treatment of PRD effects in the modeling of scattering polarization in strong resonance lines, with a focus on the solar Ca I 4227 A line.Methods. Spectral line polarization was modeled by solving the radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, under nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, taking PRD effects into account in static one-dimensional semi-empirical atmospheric models presenting arbitrary magnetic fields. The problem was solved through a two-step approach. In step 1, the problem was solved for the intensity only, considering a multilevel atom. In step 2, the problem was solved including polarization, considering a two-level atom with an unpolarized and infinitely sharp lower level, and fixing the lower level population calculated at step 1.Results. The results for the Ca I 4227 A line show a good agreement between the AA and AD calculations for the Q /I and U /I wings’ signals. However, AA calculations reveal an artificial trough in the line-core peak of the linear polarization profiles, whereas AD calculations show a sharper peak in agreement with the observations.Conclusions. An AD treatment of PRD effects is essential to correctly model the line-core peak of the scattering polarization signal of the Ca I 4227 A line. By contrast, in the considered static case, the AA approximation seems to be suitable to model the wing scattering polarization lobes and their magnetic sensitivity through magneto-optical effects.

... read more

Topics: Linear polarization (59%), Scattering (56%), Radiative transfer (53%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/AC1B9C
Abstract: In order to investigate the relation between magnetic structures and the signatures of heating in plage regions, we observed a plage region with the He I 1083.0 nm and Si I 1082.7 nm lines on 2018 October 3 using the integral field unit mode of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) installed at the GREGOR telescope. During the GRIS observation, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) obtained spectra of the ultraviolet Mg II doublet emitted from the same region. In the periphery of the plage region, within the limited field of view seen by GRIS, we find that the Mg II radiative flux increases with the magnetic field in the chromosphere with a factor of proportionality of 2.38 \times 10^4 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} G^{-1}. The positive correlation implies that magnetic flux tubes can be heated by Alfv'en wave turbulence or by collisions between ions and neutral atoms relating to Alfv'en waves. Within the plage region itself, the radiative flux was large between patches of strong magnetic field strength in the photosphere, or at the edges of magnetic patches. On the other hand, we do not find any significant spatial correlation between the enhanced radiative flux and the chromospheric magnetic field strength or the electric current. In addition to the Alfv'en wave turbulence or collisions between ions and neutral atoms relating to Alfv'en waves, other heating mechanisms related to magnetic field perturbations produced by interactions of magnetic flux tubes could be at work in the plage chromosphere.

... read more

Topics: Chromosphere (56%), Magnetic flux (56%), Plage (55%) ... read more

References
  More

65 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11207-011-9776-8
James R. Lemen1, Alan M. Title1, David J. Akin1, Paul Boerner1  +44 moreInstitutions (6)
01 Jan 2012-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provides multiple simultaneous high-resolution full-disk images of the corona and transition region up to 0.5 R ⊙ above the solar limb with 1.5-arcsec spatial resolution and 12-second temporal resolution. The AIA consists of four telescopes that employ normal-incidence, multilayer-coated optics to provide narrow-band imaging of seven extreme ultraviolet (EUV) band passes centered on specific lines: Fe xviii (94 A), Fe viii, xxi (131 A), Fe ix (171 A), Fe xii, xxiv (193 A), Fe xiv (211 A), He ii (304 A), and Fe xvi (335 A). One telescope observes C iv (near 1600 A) and the nearby continuum (1700 A) and has a filter that observes in the visible to enable coalignment with images from other telescopes. The temperature diagnostics of the EUV emissions cover the range from 6×104 K to 2×107 K. The AIA was launched as a part of NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission on 11 February 2010. AIA will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of solar variability and of how the Sun’s energy is stored and released into the heliosphere and geospace.

... read more

Topics: Solar transition region (53%), Solar telescope (52%), Coronal mass ejection (51%) ... read more

3,749 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11207-011-9841-3
01 Jan 2012-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on 11 February 2010 at 15:23 UT from Kennedy Space Center aboard an Atlas V 401 (AV-021) launch vehicle. A series of apogee-motor firings lifted SDO from an initial geosynchronous transfer orbit into a circular geosynchronous orbit inclined by 28° about the longitude of the SDO-dedicated ground station in New Mexico. SDO began returning science data on 1 May 2010. SDO is the first space-weather mission in NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) Program. SDO’s main goal is to understand, driving toward a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity’s technological systems. The SDO science investigations will determine how the Sun’s magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. Insights gained from SDO investigations will also lead to an increased understanding of the role that solar variability plays in changes in Earth’s atmospheric chemistry and climate. The SDO mission includes three scientific investigations (the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)), a spacecraft bus, and a dedicated ground station to handle the telemetry. The Goddard Space Flight Center built and will operate the spacecraft during its planned five-year mission life; this includes: commanding the spacecraft, receiving the science data, and forwarding that data to the science teams. The science investigations teams at Stanford University, Lockheed Martin Solar Astrophysics Laboratory (LMSAL), and University of Colorado Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) will process, analyze, distribute, and archive the science data. We will describe the building of SDO and the science that it will provide to NASA.

... read more

Topics: Space weather (55%), Geosynchronous orbit (52%), Solar irradiance (51%) ... read more

2,600 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11207-011-9834-2
01 Jan 2012-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument and investigation as a part of the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is designed to study convection-zone dynamics and the solar dynamo, the origin and evolution of sunspots, active regions, and complexes of activity, the sources and drivers of solar magnetic activity and disturbances, links between the internal processes and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere, and precursors of solar disturbances for space-weather forecasts. A brief overview of the instrument, investigation objectives, and standard data products is presented.

... read more

Topics: Coronal mass ejection (61%), Corona (58%), Solar cycle (58%) ... read more

1,936 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11207-007-9014-6
Takeo Kosugi1, K. Matsuzaki1, Taro Sakao1, Toshifumi Shimizu1  +21 moreInstitutions (5)
12 Sep 2007-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Hinode satellite (formerly Solar-B) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS/JAXA) was successfully launched in September 2006. As the successor to the Yohkoh mission, it aims to understand how magnetic energy gets transferred from the photosphere to the upper atmosphere and results in explosive energy releases. Hinode is an observatory style mission, with all the instruments being designed and built to work together to address the science aims. There are three instruments onboard: the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). This paper provides an overview of the mission, detailing the satellite, the scientific payload, and operations. It will conclude with discussions on how the international science community can participate in the analysis of the mission data.

... read more

1,814 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11207-008-9174-Z
Saku Tsuneta, Kiyoshi Ichimoto, Yukio Katsukawa, Shin Nagata  +21 moreInstitutions (3)
12 Apr 2008-Solar Physics
Abstract: The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite (formerly called Solar-B) consists of the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) and the Focal Plane Package (FPP). The OTA is a 50-cm diffraction-limited Gregorian telescope, and the FPP includes the narrowband filtergraph (NFI) and the broadband filtergraph (BFI), plus the Stokes Spectro-Polarimeter (SP). The SOT provides unprecedented high-resolution photometric and vector magnetic images of the photosphere and chromosphere with a very stable point spread function and is equipped with an image-stabilization system with performance better than 0.01 arcsec rms. Together with the other two instruments on Hinode (the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS)), the SOT is poised to address many fundamental questions about solar magnetohydrodynamics. This paper provides an overview; the details of the instrument are presented in a series of companion papers.

... read more

Topics: Gregorian telescope (60%), Telescope (57%), Optical telescope (52%)

1,399 Citations