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Journal ArticleDOI

Marigold: From Mandap to Medicine and from Ornamentation to Remediation

27 Feb 2019-American Journal of Plant Sciences (Scientific Research Publishing)-Vol. 10, Iss: 02, pp 309-338
TL;DR: This review includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.
Abstract: Importance of medicinal plants to health care has been great and herbal preparations are being produced at industrial scale particularly in developing countries. The plant products obtained have a long history of use in therapeutics, aromatherapy and food depending on the chemical constituents and their bioactivity. In the recent past, marigolds have received a great attention in scientific research, because of their multiple use and also the information available about their phytochemistry and bioactivity. Tagetes species commonly known as marigold is native to Mexico, being used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The plant is useful due to its unique phytoconstituents for a range of diseases and disorders and is reportedly effective against piles, kidney troubles, muscular pain, ulcers and wound healing and the flowers are helpful in fever, stomach and liver complaints and also in eye diseases. In India, marigold is also extensively used on religious and social occasions such as in the beautification of mandaps and pooja places; offerings at temples; marriage decorations and landscape planning due to variable size and colour of its flower. Present review is an effort to bring together the different strategies developed for the growth and cultivation of marigold, its ecophysiological and remediation relevance under a variety of environmental conditions and possible allelopathic potential. It includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1949-Nature
TL;DR: The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products as mentioned in this paper is a dictionary of the economic products of India that was published during the years 1889-99 by the Government of India.
Abstract: IT may occasion some surprise to those men of science who are ill-acquainted with India, and who so frequently express the view that Governments are unappreciative of the importance of science to learn that as far back as 1886 the Government of India arranged for Dr. George (later Sir George) Watt, professor of botany in the Presidency College, Calcutta, to prepare a "Dictionary of the Economic Products of India". The six volumes of this standard work were published during the years 1889-99. In 1908 Sir George Watt published a condensed version, "The Commercial Products of India". Whatever the defects of these 'dictionaries', they have been of inestimable value to all interested in Indian natural products. The Wealth of India A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Raw Materials, Vol. 1. Pp. xxvii+254+39 plates. 15 rupees ; 24s. Industrial Products, Part 1. Pp. xii+182+8 plates. 8 rupees ; 12s. (New Delhi : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948.)

694 citations

01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, students were asked to answer the following questions: • What is organic agriculture? • Where do I go to get certification in organic agriculture; • How can I get more information about organic agriculture and what is organic?
Abstract: At the end of the class, students will be able to answer the following questions: • What is organic agriculture? • Where do I go to get certification in organic agriculture? • How can I get more information about organic agriculture? What is organic? • The term " organic " is not synonymous to the terms " natural " or " eco-friendly. " • The label " natural " on foodstuff does not guarantee complete adherence to organic practices as defined by a law. • Produce food of high quality in sufficient quantity • Maintain biological diversity within the farming system • Maintain long-term soil fertility • Rely on renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems • Minimize pollution and protect the environment What is allowed in organic crop production? • New varieties of crops and agricultural technologies • Crop rotations, cover crops and natural-based products that maintain soil fertility • Biological, cultural and physical methods to limit pest expansion and increase population of beneficial insects

367 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the potential of Tagetes erecta L. was assessed for phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contaminated lateritic soil, and the plant uptake of the heavy metals was analyzed after a 12-week growing period and was determined by analyzing residual heavy metal concentrations in aerial and underground parts of the plant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).
Abstract: Heavy metals are pollutants of great concern due to their toxicity and immutable nature. As a result of human actions such as mining, industrial activity and agricultural practices, heavy metals find their way in to the soil. Phytoremediation is a a cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology in which herbaceous plants and trees are used to remediate and remove pollutants from soils. In the present study, potential of Tagetes erecta L. was assessed for phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) contaminated lateritic soil. Pot experiments were conducted for various concentrations of heavy metals (ranging from 20 mg/kg to 160 mg/kg). The plant uptake of the heavy metals was analyzed after a 12-week growing period and was determined by analyzing residual heavy metal concentrations in aerial and subterranean parts of the plant by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The total uptake of heavy metals by the plant increased with increasing heavy metal concentration in the soil. Considering the plant as a whole, the ability to uptake Zn and Cd was comparable and was significantly higher, approximately 13 times on average than its ability to uptake Pb. At lower concentrations, the ability was slightly higher for Cd, but at higher concentrations, Zn uptake was slightly higher. The order of accumulation of heavy metals in Tagetes erecta L. shoots was in the order of Cd > Zn > Pb, and the same order for roots was Zn > Cd > Pb. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was greater than 1 for Cd (soil concentration Highlights •Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) was used for phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted lateritic soil

37 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: An investigation was carried out at Department of Horticulture, R.B.S. College, Bichpuri, Agra to study the effect of nutrients and bio-inoculants on growth, flowering behaviour and yield of African marigold.
Abstract: An investigation was carried out at Department of Horticulture, R.B.S. College, Bichpuri, Agra(U.P.), to study the effect of nutrients and bio-inoculants on growth, flowering behaviour and yield of African marigold (Tagetes erecta) var. Pusa Narangi Gainda. The experiment was conducted with the four level of nutrients viz., F0 (without nutrients), F1 (200 kg N, 80 kg P and 80 kg K ha−1), F2 (150 kg N, 60 kg P and 80 kg K ha−1), F1 (100 kg N, 40 kg P and 80 kg K ha−1). Maximum plant height, flower size and yield per plant were recorded in T1 (200 kg N, 80 kg P and 80 kg K ha−1). Three level of bio-inoculant viz., B0 (without bioinoculant), B1 (10 kg VAM ha−1) and B2 (2 kg phosphobacterine), B1 (10 kg VAM ha−1) recorded maximum secondary branches, size of flower and yield per plant (g). Interaction of higher levels of NPK and VAM (200: 80: 80 kg−1 + 10 kg−1 VAM).

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the influence of leachates on the germination and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings and reported that leachate leachation of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta L. reduced germination percentage and seedling growth.
Abstract: The present investigation reports antioxidant and osmotic components of Marigold at different developmental stages and also presents influence of its leachates on germination and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Leaves of younger plants exhibit more phenols, tannins and flavonoids as compared to root and stem. Leaves and flowers of CV. PBG exhibited greater contents of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to CV. PNG. Leaves and flowers had greater free amino acids and free proline as compared to stem and root. Sodium was more in roots than in stem and leaves, whereas potassium and nitrogen are greater in leaves and stem of younger plants. Leaves of CV. PBG accumulated greater contents of potassium, nitrogen and calcium in comparison to those of PNG. Activity of PAL, SOD and CAT was greater in older plants and in flowers as compared to leaves. Non-enzymatic antioxidant components like ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione also exhibited the same trend. Nevertheless, APX, GPX and GR activity was less in the older plants and more in flowers than leaves. APX and GR activity was higher in CV. PBG than CV. PNG, whereas the activity of GPX and GST was more in PNG in comparison to PBG. The two cultivars (PNG and PBG) of Tagetes erecta L., their different parts and developmental stages showed considerable variation in their antioxidant and osmotic constituents. Accumulation of various antioxidant and osmotic components reported above may probably help Tagetes erecta L. adapt to varying environments. Higher concentration of leachates of leaves and flowers of marigold reduced germination percentage and seedling growth of wheat, whereas treatments of leachates of lower concentration somewhat stimulated the growth of wheat seedlings. Flower leachates showed more pronounced effects than leaf leachates. Further experimentation may lead to identification of allelochemicals in these leachates which may pave way for exploring the possibility of their use along with synthetic herbicides/weedicides in order to minimize the toxicity of soil caused by the use of synthetic compounds.

6 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR, which include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses.
Abstract: Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts are made to exploit them commercially as biofertilizers. After an initial clarification of the term biofertilizers and the nature of associations between PGPR and plants (i.e., endophytic versus rhizospheric), this review focuses on the known, the putative, and the speculative modes-of-action of PGPR. These modes of action include fixing N2, increasing the availability of nutrients in the rhizosphere, positively influencing root growth and morphology, and promoting other beneficial plant–microbe symbioses. The combination of these modes of actions in PGPR is also addressed, as well as the challenges facing the more widespread utilization of PGPR as biofertilizers.

2,982 citations


"Marigold: From Mandap to Medicine a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) constitute a major component of rhizosphere microflora in natural ecosystems forming obligate symbiotic associations with many angiosperms, including several medicinal species [174]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI

2,029 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presents the basic information about pigments focusing attention on the natural ones; it emphasizes the principal plant pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains.
Abstract: Pigments are present in all living matter and provide attractive colors and play basic roles in the development of organisms. Human beings, like most animals, come in contact with their surroundings through color, and things can or cannot be acceptable based on their color characteristics. This review presents the basic information about pigments focusing attention on the natural ones; it emphasizes the principal plant pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains. Special considerations are given to their salient characteristics; to their biosynthesis, taking into account the biochemical and molecular biology information generated in their elucidation; and to the processing and stability properties of these compounds as food colorants.

1,134 citations


"Marigold: From Mandap to Medicine a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The flowers are utilized as a source of pigments for food coloring at industrial scale [20]....

    [...]

Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: The salinity problems in selected countries are discussed in this article, where the authors present some of the institutions involved in salinity investigation and salinity management options and other options and aspects.
Abstract: Part 1: General aspects of salinisation 1: Global resource overview 2: Crop and irrigation aspects 3: Salinisation processes and damage 4: Management of salinity - engineering options 5: Management of salinity - other options and aspects Part 2: Salinity problems in selected countries 6: Argentina 7: Australia 8: China 9: Commonwealth of Independent States 10: Egypt 11: India 12: Iran 13: Pakistan 14: South Africa 15: Thailand 16: United States of America a: Appendix I: Summaries b: Appendix II: Some of the institutions involved in salinity investigation c: Glossary d: Subject Index e: Geographical Index

1,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd, Ni and As by plants, using naturalhyperaccumulators as model plant species.

1,019 citations


"Marigold: From Mandap to Medicine a..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Phytoremediation is an emerging technology and the underlying mechanisms are required to be understood for optimization [101]....

    [...]