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Journal ArticleDOI

Maternity or catastrophe: A study of household expenditure on maternal health care in India

11 Jan 2013-Health (Scientific Research Publishing)-Vol. 5, Iss: 1, pp 109-118

TL;DR: It was found that maternal health care expenditure in urban households was almost twice that of rural households, and increasing education level, higher consumption expenditure quintile and higher caste of women was associated with increasing odds of impoverishment due to maternalhealth care expenditure.

AbstractUsing data from 60th round of the National Sample Survey, this study attempts to measure the incidence and intensity of ‘catastrophic’ maternal health care expenditure and examines its socio-economic correlates in urban and rural areas separately. Additionally, it measures the effect of maternal health care expenditure on poverty incidence and examines the factors associated with such impoverishment due to maternal health care payments. We found that maternal health care expenditure in urban households was almost twice that of rural households. A little more than one third households suffered catastrophic payments in both urban and rural areas. Rural women from scheduled tribes (ST) had more catastrophic head counts than ST women from urban areas. On the other hand, the catastrophic head count was greater among illiterate women living in urban areas compared to those living in rural areas. After adjusting for out-of-pocket maternal health care expenditure, the poverty in urban and rural areas increased by almost equal percentage points (20% in urban areas versus 19% in rural areas). Increasing education level, higher consumption expenditure quintile and higher caste of women was associated with increasing odds of impoverishment due to maternal health care expenditure. To reduce maternal health care expenditure induced poverty, the demand-side maternal health care financing programs and policies in future should take into consideration all the costs incurred during prenatal, delivery and postnatal periods and focus not only on those women who suffered catastrophic expenditure and plunged into poverty but also those who forgo maternal health care due to their inability to pay.

Topics: Rural area (58%), Poverty (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Nov 2014-PeerJ
TL;DR: Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence.
Abstract: Background. Low use of maternal healthcare services is one of the reasons why maternal mortality is still considerably high among adolescents mothers in India. To increase the utilization of these services, it is necessary to identify factors that affect service utilization. To our knowledge, no national level study in India has yet examined the issue in the context urban adolescent mothers. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap. Data and Methods. Using information from the third wave of District Level Household Survey (2007-08), we have examined factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban Indian married adolescent women (aged 13-19 years) who have given live/still births during last three years preceding the survey. The three outcome variables included in the analyses are 'full antenatal care (ANC)', 'safe delivery' and 'postnatal care within 42 days of delivery'. We have used Chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion and the binary logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on the utilization of maternity care. Results. About 22.9% of mothers have received full ANC, 65.1% of mothers have had at least one postnatal check-up within 42 days of pregnancy. The proportion of mother having a safe delivery, i.e., assisted by skilled personnel, is about 70.5%. Findings indicate that there is considerable amount of variation in use of maternity care by educational attainment, household wealth, religion, parity and region of residence. Receiving full antenatal care is significantly associated with mother's education, religion, caste, household wealth, parity, exposure to healthcare messages and region of residence. Mother's education, full antenatal care, parity, household wealth, religion and region of residence are also statistically significant in case of safe delivery. The use of postnatal care is associated with household wealth, woman's education, full antenatal care, safe delivery care and region of residence. Conclusion. Several socioeconomic and demographic factors affect the utilization of maternal healthcare services among urban adolescent women in India. Promoting the use of family planning, female education and higher age at marriage, targeting vulnerable groups such as poor, illiterate, high parity women, involving media and grass root level workers and collaboration between community leaders and health care system could be some important policy level interventions to address the unmet need of maternity services among urban adolescents.

40 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: NHM has been successful in increasing maternal care and reducing the catastrophic health spending in public health centers and Regulating private health centres and continuing cash incentive under NHM is recommended.
Abstract: The National Health Mission (NHM), one of the largest publicly funded maternal health programs worldwide was initiated in 2005 to reduce maternal, neo-natal and infant mortality and out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) on maternal care in India. Though evidence suggests improvement in maternal and child health, little is known on the change in OOPE and catastrophic health spending (CHS) since the launch of NHM. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive estimate of OOPE and CHS on maternal care by public and private health providers in pre and post NHM periods. The unit data from the 60th and 71st rounds of National Sample Survey (NSS) is used in the analyses. Descriptive statistics is used to understand the differentials in OOPE and CHS. The CHS is estimated based on capacity to pay, derived from household consumption expenditure, the subsistence expenditure (based on state specific poverty line) and household OOPE on maternal care. Data of both rounds are pooled to understand the impact of NHM on OOPE and CHS. The log-linear regression model and the logit regression models adjusted for state fixed effect, clustering and socio-economic and demographic correlates are used in the analyses. Women availing themselves of ante natal, natal and post natal care (all three maternal care services) from public health centres have increased from 11% in 2004 to 31% by 2014 while that from private health centres had increased from 12% to 20% during the same period. The mean OOPE on all three maternal care services from public health centres was US$60 in pre-NHM and US$86 in post-NHM periods while that from private health center was US$170 and US$300 during the same period. Controlling for socioeconomic and demographic correlates, the OOPE on delivery care from public health center had not shown any significant increase in post NHM period. The OOPE on delivery care in private health center had increased by 5.6 times compared to that from public health centers in pre NHM period. Economic well-being of the households and educational attainment of women is positively and significantly associated with OOPE, linking OOPE and ability to pay. The extent of CHS on all three maternal care from public health centers had declined from 56% in pre NHM period to 29% in post NHM period while that from private health centres had declined from 56% to 47% during the same period. The odds of incurring CHS on institutional delivery in public health centers (OR .03, 95% CI 0.02, 06) and maternal care (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.04, 0.07) suggest decline in CHS in the post NHM period. Women delivering in private health centres, residing in rural areas and poor households are more likely to face CHS on maternal care. NHM has been successful in increasing maternal care and reducing the catastrophic health spending in public health centers. Regulating private health centres and continuing cash incentive under NHM is recommended.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Even though services at the public health facilities in India are supposed to be provided free of cost, it is actually not free, and the women in this study paid almost half of their mandated cash incentives to obtain delivery care.
Abstract: To expand access to safe deliveries, some developing countries have initiated demand-side financing schemes promoting institutional delivery. In the context of conditional cash incentive scheme and free maternity care in public health facilities in India, studies have highlighted high out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) of Indian families for delivery and maternity care. In this context the study assesses the components of OOPE that women incurred while accessing maternity care in public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. It also assesses the determinants of OOPE and the level of maternal satisfaction while accessing care from these facilities. It is a cross-sectional analysis of 558 recently delivered women who have delivered at four public health facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India. All OOPE related information was collected through interviews using structured pre-tested questionnaires. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney test and categorical regression were used for data reduction. The analysis showed that the median OOPE was INR 700 (US$ 11.48) which varied between INR 680 (US$ 11.15) for normal delivery and INR 970 (US$ 15.9) for complicated cases. Tips for getting services (consisting of gifts and tips for services) with a median value of INR 320 (US$ 5.25) contributed to the major share in OOPE. Women from households with income more than INR 4000 (US$ 65.57) per month, general castes, primi-gravida, complicated delivery and those not accompanied by community health workers incurred higher OOPE. The significant predictors for high OOPE were caste (General Vs. OBC, SC/ST), type of delivery (Complicated Vs. Normal), and presence of ASHA (No Vs. Yes). OOPE while accessing care for delivery was one among the least satisfactory items and 76 % women expressed their dissatisfaction. Even though services at the public health facilities in India are supposed to be provided free of cost, it is actually not free, and the women in this study paid almost half of their mandated cash incentives to obtain delivery care.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that JSY has increased the coverage of institutional delivery and reduced financial stress to household and families but not sufficient for complicated delivery and Provisioning of providing sonography/other test and treating complicated cases in public health centres need to be strengthened.
Abstract: Though Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is successful in increasing antenatal and natal care services, little is known on the cost coverage of out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) on maternal care services post-NRHM period. Using data from a community-based study of 424 recently delivered women in Rajasthan, this paper examined the variation in OOPE in accessing maternal health services and the extent to which JSY incentives covered the burden of cost incurred. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses are used to understand the differential and determinants of OOPE. The mean OOPE for antenatal care was US$26 at public health centres and US$64 at private health centres. The OOPE (antenatal and natal) per delivery was US$32 if delivery was conducted at home, US$78 at public facility and US$154 at private facility. The OOPE varied by the type of delivery, delivery with complications and place of ANC. The OOPE in public health centre was US$44 and US$145 for normal and complicated delivery, respectively. The share of JSY was 44 % of the total cost per delivery, 77 % in case of normal delivery and 23 % for complicated delivery. Results from the log linear model suggest that economic status, educational level and pregnancy complications are significant predictors of OOPE. Our results suggest that JSY has increased the coverage of institutional delivery and reduced financial stress to household and families but not sufficient for complicated delivery. Provisioning of providing sonography/other test and treating complicated cases in public health centres need to be strengthened.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2018-BMJ Open
TL;DR: There has been more than twofold increase in hospitalisation rates in India during the last two decades, and significantly higher rates were observed among infants and older adults.
Abstract: Objectives The prime objective of this study is to examine the trends of disease and age pattern of hospitalisation and associated costs in India during 1995–2014. Design Present study used nationally representative data on morbidity and healthcare from the 52nd (1995) and 71st (2014) rounds of the National Sample Survey. Settings A total of 120 942 and 65 932 households were surveyed in 1995 and 2014, respectively. Measures Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analyses and decomposition analyses were used in examining the changes in patterns of hospitalisation and associated costs. Hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation (out-of-pocket expenditure) were estimated for selected diseases and in four broad categories: communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), injuries and others. All the costs are presented at 2014 prices in US$. Results Hospitalisation rate in India has increased from 1661 in 1995 to 3699 in 2014 (per 100 000 population). It has more than doubled across all age groups. Hospitalisation among children was primarily because of communicable diseases, while NCDs were the leading cause of hospitalisation for the 40+ population. Costs per hospitalisation have increased from US$177 in 1995 to US$316 in 2014 (an increase of 79%). Costs per hospitalisation for NCDs in 2014 were US$471 compared with US$175 for communicable diseases. It was highest for cancer inpatients (US$942) followed by heart diseases (US$674). Age is the significant predictor of hospitalisation for all the selected diseases. Decomposition results showed that about three-fifth of the increase in unconditional costs per hospitalisation was due to increase in mean hospital costs, and the other two-fifth was due to increase in hospitalisation rates. Conclusion There has been more than twofold increase in hospitalisation rates in India during the last two decades, and significantly higher rates were observed among infants and older adults. Increasing hospitalisation rates and costs per hospitalisation are contributing substantially to the rising healthcare costs in India.

18 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ecuador, and Bolivia have been achieving accelerated progress and substantial, albeit varied, progress has been made towards MDG 5.
Abstract: Summary Background Maternal mortality remains a major challenge to health systems worldwide. Reliable information about the rates and trends in maternal mortality is essential for resource mobilisation, and for planning and assessment of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5), the target for which is a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) from 1990 to 2015. We assessed levels and trends in maternal mortality for 181 countries. Methods We constructed a database of 2651 observations of maternal mortality for 181 countries for 1980–2008, from vital registration data, censuses, surveys, and verbal autopsy studies. We used robust analytical methods to generate estimates of maternal deaths and the MMR for each year between 1980 and 2008. We explored the sensitivity of our data to model specification and show the out-of-sample predictive validity of our methods. Findings We estimated that there were 342 900 (uncertainty interval 302 100–394 300) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008, down from 526 300 (446 400–629 600) in 1980. The global MMR decreased from 422 (358–505) in 1980 to 320 (272–388) in 1990, and was 251 (221–289) per 100 000 livebirths in 2008. The yearly rate of decline of the global MMR since 1990 was 1·3% (1·0–1·5). During 1990–2008, rates of yearly decline in the MMR varied between countries, from 8·8% (8·7–14·1) in the Maldives to an increase of 5·5% (5·2–5·6) in Zimbabwe. More than 50% of all maternal deaths were in only six countries in 2008 (India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). In the absence of HIV, there would have been 281 500 (243 900–327 900) maternal deaths worldwide in 2008. Interpretation Substantial, albeit varied, progress has been made towards MDG 5. Although only 23 countries are on track to achieve a 75% decrease in MMR by 2015, countries such as Egypt, China, Ecuador, and Bolivia have been achieving accelerated progress. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2,061 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Health Care; Poverty; NSSO; Catastrophic Expenditure...

    [...]


Posted Content
Abstract: This book shows how to implement a variety of analytic tools that allow health equity - along different dimensions and in different spheres - to be quantified. Questions that the techniques can help provide answers for include the following: Have gaps in health outcomes between the poor and the better-off grown in specific countries or in the developing world as a whole? Are they larger in one country than in another? Are health sector subsidies more equally distributed in some countries than in others? Is health care utilization equitably distributed in the sense that people in equal need receive similar amounts of health care irrespective of their income? Are health care payments more progressive in one health care financing system than in another? What are catastrophic payments? How can they be measured? How far do health care payments impoverish households? This volume has a simple aim: to provide researchers and analysts with a step-by-step practical guide to the measurement of a variety of aspects of health equity. Each chapter includes worked examples and computer code. The authors hope that these guides, and the easy-to-implement computer routines contained in them, will stimulate yet more analysis in the field of health equity, especially in developing countries. They hope this, in turn, will lead to more comprehensive monitoring of trends in health equity, a better understanding of the causes of these inequities, more extensive evaluation of the impacts of development programs on health equity, and more effective policies and programs to reduce inequities in the health sector.

1,301 citations


Book
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The World Health Report 2005 – Make Every Mother and Child Count, says that this year almost 11 million children under five years of age will die from causes that are largely preventable.
Abstract: The World Health Report 2005 – Make Every Mother and Child Count, says that this year almost 11 million children under five years of age will die from causes that are largely preventable. Among them are 4 million babies who will not survive the first month of life. At the same time, more than half a million women will die in pregnancy, childbirth or soon after. The report says that reducing this toll in line with the Millennium Development Goals depends largely on every mother and every child having the right to access to health care from pregnancy through childbirth, the neonatal period and childhood.

986 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two threshold approaches to measuring the fairness of health care payments are presented, one requiring that payments do not exceed a pre-specified proportion of pre-payment income, the other that they do not drive households into poverty, and the incidence and intensity of 'catastrophe' payments were reduced and became less concentrated among the poor.
Abstract: This paper presents and compares two threshold approaches to measuring the fairness of health care payments, one requiring that payments do not exceed a pre-specified proportion of pre-payment income, the other that they do not drive households into poverty. We develop indices for 'catastrophe' that capture the intensity of catastrophe as well as its incidence and also allow the analyst to capture the degree to which catastrophic payments occur disproportionately among poor households. Measures of poverty impact capturing both intensity and incidence are also developed. The arguments and methods are empirically illustrated with data on out-of-pocket payments from Vietnam in 1993 and 1998. This is not an uninteresting application given that 80% of health spending in that country was paid out-of-pocket in 1998. We find that the incidence and intensity of 'catastrophic' payments - both in terms of pre-payment income as well as ability to pay - were reduced between 1993 and 1998, and that both incidence and intensity of 'catastrophe' became less concentrated among the poor. We also find that the incidence and intensity of the poverty impact of out-of-pocket payments diminished over the period in question. Finally, we find that the poverty impact of out-of-pocket payments is primarily due to poor people becoming even poorer rather than the non-poor being made poor, and that it was not expenses associated with inpatient care that increased poverty but rather non-hospital expenditures.

879 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Health Care; Poverty; NSSO; Catastrophic Expenditure...

    [...]


Book
02 Nov 2007
TL;DR: This book shows how to implement a variety of analytic tools that allow health equity - along different dimensions and in different spheres - to be quantified to lead to more comprehensive monitoring of trends in health equity, a better understanding of the causes of these inequities, and more extensive evaluation of the impacts of development programs on health equity.
Abstract: This book shows how to implement a variety of analytic tools that allow health equity - along different dimensions and in different spheres - to be quantified. Questions that the techniques can help provide answers for include the following: Have gaps in health outcomes between the poor and the better-off grown in specific countries or in the developing world as a whole? Are they larger in one country than in another? Are health sector subsidies more equally distributed in some countries than in others? Is health care utilization equitably distributed in the sense that people in equal need receive similar amounts of health care irrespective of their income? Are health care payments more progressive in one health care financing system than in another? What are catastrophic payments? How can they be measured? How far do health care payments impoverish households? This volume has a simple aim: to provide researchers and analysts with a step-by-step practical guide to the measurement of a variety of aspects of health equity. Each chapter includes worked examples and computer code. The authors hope that these guides, and the easy-to-implement computer routines contained in them, will stimulate yet more analysis in the field of health equity, especially in developing countries. They hope this, in turn, will lead to more comprehensive monitoring of trends in health equity, a better understanding of the causes of these inequities, more extensive evaluation of the impacts of development programs on health equity, and more effective policies and programs to reduce inequities in the health sector.

807 citations


"Maternity or catastrophe: A study o..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Following O’ Donnell et al. (2008), pre and post maternal health care poverty head count ratios can be written in the following manner....

    [...]

  • ...OPEN ACCESS S. Mukherjee et al. / Health 5 (2013) 109-118 111 phic expenditure, only if total maternal health care expenditure is more than 40% of “capacity to pay”....

    [...]