Abstract: Explosion characteristics of micron- and nano-size magnesium powders were determined using CSIR-CBRI 20-L Sphere, Hartmann apparatus and Godbert-Greenwald furnace to study influence of particle size reduction to nano-range on these. The explosion parameters investigated are: maximum explosion pressure (Pmax), maximum rate of pressure-rise (dP/dt)max, dust explosibility index (KSt), minimum explosible concentration (MEC), minimum ignition energy (MIE), minimum ignition temperature (MIT), limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) and effect of reduced oxygen level on explosion severity. Magnesium particle sizes are: 125, 74, 38, 22, 10 and 1 μm; and 400, 200, 150, 100, 50 and 30 nm. Experimental results indicate significant increase in explosion severity (Pmax: 7–14 bar, KSt: 98–510 bar·m/s) as particle size decreases from 125 to 1 μm, it is maximum for 400 nm (Pmax: 14.6 bar, KSt: 528 bar·m/s) and decreases with further decrease of particle size to nano-range 200–30 nm (Pmax: 12.4–9.4 bar, KSt: 460–262 bar·m/s) as it is affected by agglomeration of nano-particles. MEC decreases from 160 to 30 g/m3 on decreasing particle size from 125 to 1 μm, its value is 30 g/m3 for 400 and 200 nm and 20 g/m3 for further decrease in nano-range (150–30 nm). MIE reduces from 120 to 2 mJ on decreasing the particle size from 125 to 1 μm, its value is 1 mJ for 400, 200, 150 nm size and <1 mJ for 50 and 30 nm. Minimum ignition temperature is 600 °C for 125 μm magnesium, it varies between 570 and 450 °C for sizes 38–1 μm and 400–350 °C for size range 400–30 nm. Magnesium powders in nano-range (30–200 nm) explode less violently than micron-range powder. However, likelihood of explosion increases significantly for nano-range magnesium. LOC is 5% for magnesium size range 125–38 μm, 4% for 22–1 μm, 3% for 400 nm, 4% for 200, 150 and 100 nm, and 5% for 50 and 30 nm. Reduction in oxygen levels to 9% results in decrease in Pmax and KSt by a factor of 2–3 and 4–5, respectively, for micron as well as nano-sizes. The experimental data presented will be useful for industries producing or handling similar size range micron- and nano-magnesium in order to evaluate explosibility of their magnesium powders and propose/design adequate safety measures.