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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2021.01.050

Maturation and persistence of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 memory B cell response.

04 Mar 2021-Cell (Elsevier)-Vol. 184, Iss: 5
Abstract: Memory B cells play a fundamental role in host defenses against viruses, but to date, their role has been relatively unsettled in the context of SARS-CoV-2. We report here a longitudinal single-cell and repertoire profiling of the B cell response up to 6 months in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Distinct SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific activated B cell clones fueled an early antibody-secreting cell burst as well as a durable synchronous germinal center response. While highly mutated memory B cells, including pre-existing cross-reactive seasonal Betacoronavirus-specific clones, were recruited early in the response, neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific clones accumulated with time and largely contributed to the late, remarkably stable, memory B cell pool. Highlighting germinal center maturation, these cells displayed clear accumulation of somatic mutations in their variable region genes over time. Overall, these findings demonstrate that an antigen-driven activation persisted and matured up to 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and may provide long-term protection.

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Topics: Memory B cell (68%), Germinal center (62%), B cell (57%) ... read more
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69 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-021-03207-W
18 Jan 2021-Nature
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with the development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity, which can protect against infection in animal models1,2. Antibody levels decrease with time, but, to our knowledge, the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would be required to produce antibodies upon reinfection has not been examined. Here we report on the humoral memory response in a cohort of 87 individuals assessed at 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We find that titres of IgM and IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 decrease significantly over this time period, with IgA being less affected. Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by fivefold in pseudotype virus assays. By contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remains unchanged at 6.2 months after infection. Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies that they express have greater somatic hypermutation, resistance to RBD mutations and increased potency, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response. Immunofluorescence and PCR analyses of intestinal biopsies obtained from asymptomatic individuals at 4 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids and immunoreactivity in the small bowel of 7 out of 14 individuals. We conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.

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Topics: Memory B cell (57%), Immunoglobulin G (56%), Antibody (56%) ... read more

466 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-021-03696-9
14 Jun 2021-Nature
Abstract: More than one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several working vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies1,2. Here we report on a cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines3,4. In the absence of vaccination, antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable between 6 and 12 months after infection. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response and, as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern similar to or greater than the neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 strain achieved by vaccination of naive individuals2,5–8. The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in the variants of concern4,9. In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand markedly after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 continue to evolve 6 to 12 months after infection in patients who have recovered from COVID-19, increasing in potency and breadth with time.

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Topics: Memory B cell (54%), Vaccination (53%), Antibody (52%) ... read more

117 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.ABG6916
23 Feb 2021-Science immunology
Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of the kinetics and evolution of the human B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection will facilitate the development of next-generation vaccines and therapies. Here, we longitudinally profiled this response in mild and severe COVID-19 patients over a period of five months. Serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses waned rapidly but spike (S)-specific IgG+ memory B cells (MBCs) remained stable or increased over time. Analysis of 1,213 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from S-specific MBCs revealed a primarily de novo response that displayed increased somatic hypermutation, binding affinity, and neutralization potency over time, providing evidence for prolonged antibody affinity maturation. B cell immunodominance hierarchies were similar across donor repertoires and remained relatively stable as the immune response progressed. Cross-reactive B cell populations, likely re-called from prior endemic beta-coronavirus exposures, comprised a small but stable fraction of the repertoires and did not contribute to the neutralizing response. The neutralizing antibody response was dominated by public clonotypes that displayed significantly reduced activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging in Brazil and South Africa that harbor mutations at positions 501, 484 and 417 in the S protein. Overall, the results provide insight into the dynamics, durability, and functional properties of the human B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and have implications for the design of immunogens that preferentially stimulate protective B cell responses.

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Topics: Neutralizing antibody (59%), Somatic hypermutation (56%), B cell (55%) ... read more

49 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41577-021-00550-X
Abstract: Immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is central to long-term control of the current pandemic. Despite our rapidly advancing knowledge of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, understanding how these responses translate into protection against reinfection at both the individual and population levels remains a major challenge. An ideal outcome following infection or after vaccination would be a highly protective and durable immunity that allows for the establishment of high levels of population immunity. However, current studies suggest a decay of neutralizing antibody responses in convalescent patients, and documented cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection are increasing. Understanding the dynamics of memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the mechanisms of immune control are crucial for the rational design and deployment of vaccines and for understanding the possible future trajectories of the pandemic. Here, we summarize our current understanding of immune responses to and immune control of SARS-CoV-2 and the implications for prevention of reinfection.

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Topics: Herd immunity (54%), Population (53%), Vaccination (52%) ... read more

49 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9030556
08 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Several studies have described the long-term kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies but long-term follow-up data, i.e., >6 months, are still sparse. Additionally, the literature is inconsistent regarding the waning effect of the serological response. The aim of this study was to explore the temporal dynamic changes of the immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized and non-hospitalized symptomatic patients over a period of 10 months. Six different analytical kits for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection were used. Positivity rates, inter-assay agreement and kinetic models were determined. A high inter-individual and an inter-methodology variability was observed. Assays targeting total antibodies presented higher positivity rates and reached the highest positivity rates sooner compared with assays directed against IgG. The inter-assay agreement was also higher between these assays. The stratification by disease severity showed a much-elevated serological response in hospitalized versus non-hospitalized patients in all assays. In this 10-month follow-up study, serological assays showed a clinically significant difference to detect past SARS-CoV-2 infection with total antibody assays presenting the highest positivity rates. The waning effect reported in several studies should be interpreted with caution because it could depend on the assay considered.

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Topics: Serology (52%)

31 Citations


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70 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2019.05.031
13 Jun 2019-Cell
Abstract: Single-cell transcriptomics has transformed our ability to characterize cell states, but deep biological understanding requires more than a taxonomic listing of clusters. As new methods arise to measure distinct cellular modalities, a key analytical challenge is to integrate these datasets to better understand cellular identity and function. Here, we develop a strategy to "anchor" diverse datasets together, enabling us to integrate single-cell measurements not only across scRNA-seq technologies, but also across different modalities. After demonstrating improvement over existing methods for integrating scRNA-seq data, we anchor scRNA-seq experiments with scATAC-seq to explore chromatin differences in closely related interneuron subsets and project protein expression measurements onto a bone marrow atlas to characterize lymphocyte populations. Lastly, we harmonize in situ gene expression and scRNA-seq datasets, allowing transcriptome-wide imputation of spatial gene expression patterns. Our work presents a strategy for the assembly of harmonized references and transfer of information across datasets.

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3,853 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-020-0897-1
Quanxin Long1, Bai Zhong Liu2, Hai Jun Deng1, Gui Cheng Wu3  +47 moreInstitutions (4)
29 Apr 2020-Nature Medicine
Abstract: We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.

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Topics: Seroconversion (64%)

1,864 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80541-5
01 Mar 1998-Immunity
Abstract: Conventional models suggest that long-term antibody responses are maintained by the continuous differentiation of memory B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. This is based on the notion that plasma cells are short-lived and need to be continually replenished by memory B cells. We examined the issue of plasma cell longevity by following the persistence of LCMV-specific antibody and plasma cell numbers after in vivo depletion of memory B cells and by adoptive transfer of virus-specific plasma cells into naive mice. The results show that a substantial fraction of plasma cells can survive and continue to secrete antibody for extended periods of time (>1 year) in the absence of any detectable memory B cells. This study documents the existence of long-lived plasma cells and demonstrates a new mechanism by which humoral immunity is maintained.

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Topics: Plasma cell (70%), B-1 cell (63%), Naive B cell (62%) ... read more

1,106 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2456-9
18 Jun 2020-Nature
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives Virus entry into cells depends on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) Although there is no vaccine, it is likely that antibodies will be essential for protection However, little is known about the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-21-5 Here we report on 149 COVID-19 convalescent individuals Plasmas collected an average of 39 days after the onset of symptoms had variable half-maximal pseudovirus neutralizing titres: less than 1:50 in 33% and below 1:1,000 in 79%, while only 1% showed titres above 1:5,000 Antibody sequencing revealed expanded clones of RBD-specific memory B cells expressing closely related antibodies in different individuals Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on RBD neutralized at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as single digit nanograms per millitre Thus, most convalescent plasmas obtained from individuals who recover from COVID-19 do not contain high levels of neutralizing activity Nevertheless, rare but recurring RBD-specific antibodies with potent antiviral activity were found in all individuals tested, suggesting that a vaccine designed to elicit such antibodies could be broadly effective

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Topics: Epitope (51%), Antibody (51%)

1,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2380-Z
Bin Ju1, Qi Zhang2, Jiwan Ge2, Ruoke Wang2  +20 moreInstitutions (4)
26 May 2020-Nature
Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global health emergency that is in urgent need of intervention1-3. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into its target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)2,4-6. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from single B cells from 8 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. We identified antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2; this activity correlates with competition with ACE2 for binding to RBD. Unexpectedly, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the infected plasma did not cross-react with the RBDs of SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although there was substantial plasma cross-reactivity to their trimeric spike proteins. Analysis of the crystal structure of RBD-bound antibody revealed that steric hindrance inhibits viral engagement with ACE2, thereby blocking viral entry. These findings suggest that anti-RBD antibodies are largely viral-species-specific inhibitors. The antibodies identified here may be candidates for development of clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Coronavirus (59%), Viral entry (57%), Monoclonal antibody (56%) ... read more

959 Citations


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