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Journal ArticleDOI

Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-33) and IL-33 receptors (sST2 and ST2L) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

01 Sep 2011-Journal of Korean Medical Science (Korean Academy of Medical Sciences)-Vol. 26, Iss: 9, pp 1132-1139

TL;DR: IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may reflect the degree of inflammation in patients with RA, and the levels of IL-33, sST2 and C-reactive protein decreased after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs treatment in 10 patients with treatment-naïve RA.

AbstractThe interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 pathway has emerged as an intercellular signaling system that participates in antigen-allergen response, autoimmunity and fibrosis. It has been suggested that IL-33/ST2 signaling has been involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), because IL-33 and its receptor have been specifically mapped to RA synovium. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of IL-33 and sST2 in sera and synovial fluids in patients with RA. The serum level of IL-33 was significantly higher in patients with RA (294.9 ± 464.0 pg/mL) than in healthy controls (96.0 ± 236.9 pg/mL, P = 0.002). The synovial fluid level of IL-33 was significantly higher in RA patients than in osteoarthritis patients. The level of serum sST2 was higher in RA patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.042). A significant relationship was found between the levels of IL-33 and IL-1β (r = 0.311, P = 0.005), and IL-33 and IL-6 (r = 0.264, P = 0.017) in 81 RA patients. The levels of IL-33, sST2 and C-reactive protein decreased after conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs treatment in 10 patients with treatment-naive RA. Conclusively, IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of RA and may reflect the degree of inflammation in patients with RA.

Topics: Synovial fluid (53%), Rheumatoid arthritis (52%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biomarker panels for frailty would be of high value and better than single markers.
Abstract: Objective: Use of the frailty index to measure an accumulation of deficits has been proven a valuable method for identifying elderly people at risk for increased vulnerability, disease, injury, and mortality. However, complementary molecular frailty biomarkers or ideally biomarker panels have not yet been identified. We conducted a systematic search to identify biomarker candidates for a frailty biomarker panel. Methods: Gene expression databases were searched (http://genomics.senescence.info/genes including GenAge, AnAge, LongevityMap, CellAge, DrugAge, Digital Aging Atlas) to identify genes regulated in aging, longevity, and age-related diseases with a focus on secreted factors or molecules detectable in body fluids as potential frailty biomarkers. Factors broadly expressed, related to several “hallmark of aging” pathways as well as used or predicted as biomarkers in other disease settings, particularly age-related pathologies, were identified. This set of biomarkers was further expanded according to the expertise and experience of the authors. In the next step, biomarkers were assigned to six “hallmark of aging” pathways, namely (1) inflammation, (2) mitochondria and apoptosis, (3) calcium homeostasis, (4) fibrosis, (5) NMJ (neuromuscular junction) and neurons, (6) cytoskeleton and hormones, or (7) other principles and an extensive literature search was performed for each candidate to explore their potential and priority as frailty biomarkers. Results: A total of 44 markers were evaluated in the seven categories listed above, and 19 were awarded a high priority score, 22 identified as medium priority and three were low priority. In each category high and medium priority markers were identified. Conclusion: Biomarker panels for frailty would be of high value and better than single markers. Based on our search we would propose a core panel of frailty biomarkers consisting of (1) CXCL10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10), IL-6 (interleukin 6), CX3CL1 (C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1), (2) GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15), FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5), vimentin (VIM), (3) regucalcin (RGN/SMP30), calreticulin, (4) PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase), AGT (angiotensinogen), (5) BDNF (brain derived neurotrophic factor), progranulin (PGRN), (6) α-klotho (KL), FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), FGF21, leptin (LEP), (7) miRNA (micro Ribonucleic acid) panel (to be further defined), AHCY (adenosylhomocysteinase) and KRT18 (keratin 18). An expanded panel would also include (1) pentraxin (PTX3), sVCAM/ICAM (soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1/Intercellular adhesion molecule 1), defensin α, (2) APP (amyloid beta precursor protein), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), (3) S100B (S100 calcium binding protein B), (4) TGFβ (transforming growth factor beta), PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), TGM2 (transglutaminase 2), (5) sRAGE (soluble receptor for advanced glycosylation end products), HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), C3/C1Q (complement factor 3/1Q), ST2 (Interleukin 1 receptor like 1), agrin (AGRN), (6) IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1), resistin (RETN), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), ghrelin (GHRL), growth hormone (GH), (7) microparticle panel (to be further defined), GpnmB (glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B) and lactoferrin (LTF). We believe that these predicted panels need to be experimentally explored in animal models and frail cohorts in order to ascertain their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

162 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..."

  • ...Interestingly, serum levels of ST2 are higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in healthy controls and are decreased following treatment with conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (Hong et al., 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes new data on inflammatory bone loss obtained in 2011 and describes the molecular pathways by which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and RANKL induce osteoclast differentiation.
Abstract: Chronic inflammation including autoimmune disease is an important risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) play a central role in osteoclast differentiation and function, and the molecular pathways by which M-CSF and RANKL induce osteoclast differentiation have been analyzed in detail. Proinflammatory cytokines directly or indirectly regulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption providing a link between inflammation and osteoporosis. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-17 are the most important proinflammatory cytokines triggering inflammatory bone loss. Inhibition of these cytokines has provided potent therapeutic effects in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Further investigation is needed to understand the pathophysiology and to develop new strategies to treat inflammatory bone loss. This review summarizes new data on inflammatory bone loss obtained in 2011.

129 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main functions of the IL-1 family are innate immune reactions and inflammation, rather than acquired immunity, which can occur in several rheumatic diseases.
Abstract: More than any other cytokine family, the 11 members of the IL-1 family are associated with innate immune responses, which occur in acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatic diseases. In many rheumatic diseases, the severity of the condition can result from the balance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory members of the IL-1 family. Pro-inflammatory family members (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are found in the articular environment during arthritis and often correlate with the degree of inflammation present. IL-1β has emerged as pivotal for promoting inflammation, particularly in autoinflammatory diseases, whereas IL-1α and the IL-36 subfamily are associated with skin diseases. IL-33 regulates T helper 2 (TH2) cell-mediated diseases, in sharp contrast to IL-18, which mainly regulates TH1 cell-mediated responses. The IL-1 family also contains four members that suppress inflammation: two specific receptor antagonists (IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra)), and two members that broadly suppress innate inflammation by non-specifically reducing several cytokines and chemokines (IL-37 and IL-38). In this Review, each of the eleven IL-1 family cytokines and their receptors are discussed, along with their putative roles in rheumatic disease and therapeutic options for targeting or promoting these cytokines. Cytokines from the IL-1 family perform important functions in innate immune reactions, but can also be involved in chronic inflammatory diseases. This Review highlights the roles of IL-1 family members in rheumatic diseases and potential therapeutic approaches to targeting them.

110 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2012-Allergy
TL;DR: Current knowledge regarding the roles of IL‐33 in the functions of various cell types and the pathogenesis of allergy suggests that it acts as an alarmin, like IL‐1α and high‐mobility group box chromosomal protein‐1 (HMGB‐1).
Abstract: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, which includes IL-1 and IL-18, and is considered to be important for host defense against nematodes by inducing Th2 cytokine production via the IL-33 receptor IL-33 receptor is a heterodimer of IL-1 receptor-like 1 (IL-1RL1; also called ST2, T1, Der4, and fit-1) and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) On the other hand, excessive and/or inappropriate production of IL-33 is considered to be involved in the development of various disorders, such as allergic and autoimmune diseases Unlike IL-1β and IL-18, IL-33 does not seem to be secreted through the activation of inflammasomes in events such as apoptosis However, IL-33 is localized in the nucleus of cells and is released during tissue injury associated with necrosis This suggests that it acts as an alarmin, like IL-1α and high-mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1) This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the roles of IL-33 in the functions of various cell types and the pathogenesis of allergy

97 citations


Cites background from "Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..."

  • ...The serum IL-33 levels were significantly higher in patients with rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis caused by Japanese cedar pollens than in healthy subjects (126, 128)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of soluble ST2 as a HF biomarker will be discussed, specifically addressing analytical considerations of measuring sST2 as well as the clinical applications of measurement of s ST2 for the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of acute and chronic HF.
Abstract: In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests (including natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins), other biomarkers are gaining attention for their utility in heart failure (HF) management. Among them, soluble ST2 (sST2) a novel biomarker integrating inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac stress has been included in the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for additive risk stratification of patients with acute and chronic HF. sST2 is an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor family member, is secreted into the circulation and functions as a "decoy" receptor for IL-33, inhibiting IL-33/ST2 signaling. Blood concentrations of sST2 are increased in various diseases such as inflammatory diseases and heart diseases and are considered a valuable prognostic marker in both conditions. sST2 lacks disease specificity and, therefore, is not a valuable marker for the diagnosis of HF. In acute and chronic HF, however, sST2 is strongly associated with measures of HF severity and poor outcome. Several studies in patients with HF indicate that serial measurement of sST2 has prognostic value and could have a potential role in future biomarker-directed therapy. In this review, the role of sST2 as a HF biomarker will be discussed, specifically addressing analytical considerations of measuring sST2 as well as the clinical applications of measurement of sST2 for the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of acute and chronic HF.

93 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA).
Abstract: The revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were formulated from a computerized analysis of 262 contemporary, consecutively studied patients with RA and 262 control subjects with rheumatic diseases other than RA (non-RA). The new criteria are as follows: 1) morning stiffness in and around joints lasting at least 1 hour before maximal improvement; 2) soft tissue swelling (arthritis) of 3 or more joint areas observed by a physician; 3) swelling (arthritis) of the proximal interphalangeal, metacarpophalangeal, or wrist joints; 4) symmetric swelling (arthritis); 5) rheumatoid nodules; 6) the presence of rheumatoid factor; and 7) radiographic erosions and/or periarticular osteopenia in hand and/or wrist joints. Criteria 1 through 4 must have been present for at least 6 weeks. Rheumatoid arthritis is defined by the presence of 4 or more criteria, and no further qualifications (classic, definite, or probable) or list of exclusions are required. In addition, a "classification tree" schema is presented which performs equally as well as the traditional (4 of 7) format. The new criteria demonstrated 91-94% sensitivity and 89% specificity for RA when compared with non-RA rheumatic disease control subjects.

18,828 citations


"Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...RA was diagnosed based on the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria (13)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: The Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases has published all of the classification criteria for the rheumatic diseases to date, and these new revised classified criteria for rheumatoid arthritis are very important as they should provide understanding of the possibly changing face of rheumatism.
Abstract: The Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases has published all of the classification criteria for the rheumatic diseases to date. These new revised classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis are very important as they should provide understanding of the possibly changing face of rheumatoid arthritis.

8,641 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2005-Immunity
TL;DR: A member of theIL-1 family, IL-33, which mediates its biological effects via IL-1 receptor ST 2, activates NF-kappaB and MAP kinases, and drives production of T(H)2-associated cytokines from in vitro polarized T( H)2 cells is reported.
Abstract: Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, such as IL-1 alpha/beta and IL-18, have important functions in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation. Insight into their biological functions has led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human inflammatory diseases. Within the IL-1 family, IL-1 alpha/beta, IL-1Ra, and IL-18 have been matched to their respective receptor complexes and have been shown to have distinct biological functions. The most prominent orphan IL-1 receptor is ST 2. This receptor has been described as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-IL-1 receptor signaling, but it also functions as an important effector molecule of T helper type 2 responses. We report a member of the IL-1 family, IL-33, which mediates its biological effects via IL-1 receptor ST 2, activates NF-kappaB and MAP kinases, and drives production of T(H)2-associated cytokines from in vitro polarized T(H)2 cells. In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs.

2,999 citations


"Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It also increases the production of IL-5 and IL-13 by polarized Th2 cells (3) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by both iNKT and NK cells (7)....

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  • ...Mature IL-33 has been reported to mediate its biologic effects via T1/ST2 binding by activating NF-κB and MAP kinase (3)....

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  • ...The expression of ST2L, a membrane-anchored long form, is restricted to the surface of Th2 cells and mast cells (3)....

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  • ...Although recombinant pro-IL-33 is cleaved by recombinant caspase-1 in vitro (3), the in vivo role of caspase-1 in the cleavage of pro-IL-33 remains controversial (27)....

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  • ...Therefore, synovial fibroblasts, endothelial cells, activated DCs, and macrophages may be the main source of IL-33 in synovial fluid from RA patients (3, 15)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current knowledge regarding the role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of OA is discussed and the potential of anticytokine therapy in the treatment of this disease is addressed.
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with cartilage destruction, subchondral bone remodeling and inflammation of the synovial membrane, although the etiology and pathogenesis underlying this debilitating disease are poorly understood. Secreted inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines, are among the critical mediators of the disturbed processes implicated in OA pathophysiology. Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in particular, control the degeneration of articular cartilage matrix, which makes them prime targets for therapeutic strategies. Animal studies provide support for this approach, although only a few clinical studies have investigated the efficacy of blocking these proinflammatory cytokines in the treatment of OA. Apart from IL-1β and TNF, several other cytokines including IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, IL-18, IL-21, leukemia inhibitory factor and IL-8 (a chemokine) have also been shown to be implicated in OA and could possibly be targeted therapeutically. This Review discusses the current knowledge regarding the role of proinflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of OA and addresses the potential of anticytokine therapy in the treatment of this disease.

1,546 citations


"Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..." refers background in this paper

  • ...IL-1β, TNF and IL-6 seem to be the main proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of OA (19)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: IL-33 is host-protective against helminth infection and reduces atherosclerosis by promoting TH2-type immune responses but can also promote the pathogenesis of asthma by expanding TH2 cells and mediate joint inflammation, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis by mast cell activation.
Abstract: Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a newly described member of the IL-1 family, is expressed by many cell types following pro-inflammatory stimulation and is thought to be released on cell lysis. The IL-33 receptor, consisting of ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein, is also widely expressed, particularly by T helper 2 (T(H)2) cells and mast cells. IL-33 is host-protective against helminth infection and reduces atherosclerosis by promoting T(H)2-type immune responses. However, IL-33 can also promote the pathogenesis of asthma by expanding T(H)2 cells and mediate joint inflammation, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis by mast cell activation. Thus IL-33 could be a new target for therapeutic intervention across a range of diseases.

849 citations


"Measurement of interleukin-33 (IL-3..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(24) also proposed that in established RA, IL-33 causes mast cell-mediated inflammation, which amplifies the Th17 cell response....

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  • ...(24) suggested that in early RA, IL-33 produced by synovial fibroblasts and synovial endothelial cells induces a Th2-type response....

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