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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12916-021-01922-9

Meat consumption and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in 475,000 men and women in the UK Biobank study

02 Mar 2021-BMC Medicine (BioMed Central)-Vol. 19, Iss: 1, pp 53-53
Abstract: There is limited prospective evidence on the association between meat consumption and many common, non-cancerous health outcomes. We examined associations of meat intake with risk of 25 common conditions (other than cancer). We used data from 474,985 middle-aged adults recruited into the UK Biobank study between 2006 and 2010 and followed up until 2017 (mean follow-up 8.0 years) with available information on meat intake at baseline (collected via touchscreen questionnaire), and linked hospital admissions and mortality data. For a large sub-sample (~ 69,000), dietary intakes were re-measured three or more times using an online, 24-h recall questionnaire. On average, participants who reported consuming meat regularly (three or more times per week) had more adverse health behaviours and characteristics than participants who consumed meat less regularly, and most of the positive associations observed for meat consumption and health risks were substantially attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). In multi-variable adjusted (including BMI) Cox regression models corrected for multiple testing, higher consumption of unprocessed red and processed meat combined was associated with higher risks of ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio (HRs) per 70 g/day higher intake 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.07–1.23), pneumonia (1.31, 1.18–1.44), diverticular disease (1.19, 1.11–1.28), colon polyps (1.10, 1.06–1.15), and diabetes (1.30, 1.20–1.42); results were similar for unprocessed red meat and processed meat intakes separately. Higher consumption of unprocessed red meat alone was associated with a lower risk of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA: HR per 50 g/day higher intake 0.80, 95% CIs 0.72–0.90). Higher poultry meat intake was associated with higher risks of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (HR per 30 g/day higher intake 1.17, 95% CIs 1.09–1.26), gastritis and duodenitis (1.12, 1.05–1.18), diverticular disease (1.10, 1.04–1.17), gallbladder disease (1.11, 1.04–1.19), and diabetes (1.14, 1.07–1.21), and a lower IDA risk (0.83, 0.76–0.90). Higher unprocessed red meat, processed meat, and poultry meat consumption was associated with higher risks of several common conditions; higher BMI accounted for a substantial proportion of these increased risks suggesting that residual confounding or mediation by adiposity might account for some of these remaining associations. Higher unprocessed red meat and poultry meat consumption was associated with lower IDA risk.

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Topics: Red meat (66%)
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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ANIMAL.2021.100376
S. Prache1, C. Adamiec2, Thierry Astruc, E. Baéza-Campone3  +20 moreInstitutions (10)
23 Nov 2021-Animal
Abstract: This article critically reviews the current state of knowledge on the quality of animal-source foods according to animal production and food processing conditions, including consumer expectations-behaviours and the effects of consumption of animal-source foods on human health. Quality has been defined through seven core attributes: safety, commercial, sensory, nutritional, technological, convenience, and image. Image covers ethical, cultural and environmental dimensions associated with the origin of the food and the way it is produced and processed. This framework enabled to highlight the priorities given to the different quality attributes. It also helped to identify potential antagonisms and synergies among quality attributes, between production and processing stages, and among stakeholders. Primacy is essentially given to commercial quality attributes, especially for standard commodity animal-source foods. This primacy has strongly influenced genetic selection and farming practices in all livestock commodity chains and enabled substantial quantitative gains, although at the expense of other quality traits. Focal issues are the destructuration of chicken muscle that compromises sensory, nutritional and image quality attributes, and the fate of males in the egg and dairy sectors, which have heavily specialised their animals. Quality can be gained but can also be lost throughout the farm-to-fork continuum. Our review highlights critical factors and periods throughout animal production and food processing routes, such as on-farm practices, notably animal feeding, preslaughter and slaughter phases, food processing techniques, and food formulation. It also reveals on-farm and processing factors that create antagonisms among quality attributes, such as the castration of male pigs, the substitution of marine-source feed by plant-based feed in fish, and the use of sodium nitrite in meat processing. These antagonisms require scientific data to identify trade-offs among quality attributes and/or solutions to help overcome these tensions. However, there are also food products that value synergies between quality attributes and between production and processing phases, particularly Geographical Indications, such as for cheese and dry-cured ham. Human epidemiological studies have found associations between consumption of animal-source foods and increased or decreased risk for chronic non-communicable diseases. These associations have informed public health recommendations. However, they have not yet considered animal production and food processing conditions. A concerted and collaborative effort is needed from scientists working in animal science, food process engineering, consumer science, human nutrition and epidemiology in order to address this research gap. Avenues for research and main options for policy action are discussed.

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Topics: Food processing (56%), Animal source foods (54%), Quality (business) (52%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13082527
23 Jul 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Consumers are shifting towards plant-based diets, driven by both environmental and health reasons. This has led to the development of new plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) that are marketed as being sustainable and good for health. However, it remains unclear whether these novel PBMAs to replace animal foods carry the same established nutritional benefits as traditional plant-based diets based on pulses, legumes and vegetables. We modelled a reference omnivore diet using NHANES 2017–2018 data and compared it to diets that substituted animal products in the reference diet with either traditional or novel plant-based foods to create flexitarian, vegetarian and vegan diets matched for calories and macronutrients. With the exception of the traditional vegan diet, all diets with traditional plant-based substitutes met daily requirements for calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, iron and Vitamin B12 and were lower in saturated fat, sodium and sugar than the reference diet. Diets based on novel plant-based substitutes were below daily requirements for calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc and Vitamin B12 and exceeded the reference diet for saturated fat, sodium and sugar. Much of the recent focus has been on protein quality and quantity, but our case study highlights the risk of unintentionally increasing undesirable nutrients while reducing the overall nutrient density of the diet when less healthy plant-based substitutes are selected. Opportunities exist for PBMA producers to enhance the nutrient profile and diversify the format of future plant-based foods that are marketed as healthy, sustainable alternatives to animal-based products.

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Topics: Vegan Diet (62%), Saturated fat (55%), Nutrient density (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FREERADBIOMED.2021.09.018
Abstract: The traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), rich in minimally processed plant foods and fish, has been widely recognized to be one of the healthiest diets. Data from multiple randomized clinical trials have demonstrated its powerful effect against oxidative stress, inflammation and the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic conditions that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The protecting effects of the MedDiet against cognitive decline have been investigated in several observational and experimental studies. Data from observational studies suggest that the MedDiet may represent an effective dietary strategy for the early prevention of dementia, although these findings require further substantiation in clinical trials which have so far produced inconclusive results. Moreover, as we discuss in this review, accumulating data emphasizes the importance of: 1) maintaining an optimal nutritional and metabolic status for the promotion of healthy cognitive aging, and 2) implementing cognition-sparing dietary and lifestyle interventions during early time-sensitive windows before the pathological cascades turn into an irreversible state. In summary, components of the MedDiet pattern, such as essential fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamins, have been associated with reduced oxidative stress and the current evidence from observational studies seems to assign to the MedDiet a beneficial role in promoting brain health; however, results from clinical trials have been inconsistent. While we advocate for longitudinal analyses and for larger and longer clinical trials to be conducted, we assert our interim support to the use of the MedDiet as a protective dietary intervention for cognitive function based on its proven cardiovascular and metabolic benefits.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (54%)

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1007/S10654-021-00811-Y
Abstract: While there is strong epidemiological evidence that circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with a higher risk of several cancers, little is known about its association with non-cancer outcomes. We investigated associations of circulating IGF-I with risk of 25 common conditions, other than cancer, in a large British cohort. Study participants were 318,749 middle-aged adults enrolled in the UK Biobank Study. Serum IGF-I concentration was measured in samples collected at baseline (2006-2010), and re-measured in 12,334 participants after an average of 4.3 years. We followed-up participants over an average of 11.5 years by linking to hospital admissions and mortality registries. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between circulating IGF-I and 25 common conditions, using the repeated IGF-I measurements to correct for regression dilution bias. After correction for multiple testing (P < 0.002), IGF-I was positively associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (HR per 5 nmol/l higher concentration = 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16), and inversely associated with varicose veins (0.90, 0.85-0.95), cataracts (0.97, 0.95-0.99), diabetes (0.92, 0.90-0.95), and iron deficiency anaemia (0.90, 0.86-0.93). The associations for cataracts and diabetes attenuated when restricted to cases diagnosed after five or more years of follow-up, suggesting that these associations were likely affected by reverse causality. Higher IGF-I concentration might be associated with the risk for several conditions, but genetic studies are needed to clarify which associations may be causal.

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Topics: Hazard ratio (52%), Regression dilution (51%), Prospective cohort study (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LANEPE.2021.100212
Jenni Ervasti1, Jaana Pentti2, Jaana Pentti1, Jaana Pentti3  +26 moreInstitutions (11)
05 Sep 2021-
Abstract: SUMMARY Background Studies on the association between long working hours and health have captured only a narrow range of outcomes (mainly cardiometabolic diseases and depression) and no outcome-wide studies on this topic are available. To achieve wider scope of potential harm, we examined long working hours as a risk factor for a wide range of disease and mortality endpoints. Methods The data of this multicohort study were from two population cohorts from Finland (primary analysis, n=59 599) and nine cohorts (replication analysis, n=44 262) from Sweden, Denmark, and the UK, all part of the Individual-participant Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) consortium. Baseline-assessed long working hours (≥55 hours per week) were compared to standard working hours (35-40 h). Outcome measures with follow-up until age 65 years were 46 diseases that required hospital treatment or continuous pharmacotherapy, all-cause, and three cause-specific mortality endpoints, ascertained via linkage to national health and mortality registers. Findings 2747 (4·6%) participants in the primary cohorts and 3027 (6·8%) in the replication cohorts worked long hours. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, working long hours was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 1·68; 95% confidence interval 1·08-2·61 in primary analysis and 1·52; 0·90-2·58 in replication analysis), infections (1·37; 1·13-1·67 and 1·45; 1·13-1·87), diabetes (1·18; 1·01-1·38 and 1·41; 0·98-2·02), injuries (1·22; 1·00-1·50 and 1·18; 0·98-1·18) and musculoskeletal disorders (1·15; 1·06-1·26 and 1·13; 1·00-1·27). Working long hours was not associated with all-cause mortality. Interpretation Follow-up of 50 health outcomes in four European countries suggests that working long hours is associated with an elevated risk of early cardiovascular death and hospital-treated infections before age 65. Associations, albeit weak, were also observed with diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. In these data working long hours was not related to elevated overall mortality. Funding NordForsk, the Medical Research Council, the National Institute on Aging, the Wellcome Trust, Academy of Finland, and Finnish Work Environment Fund.

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Topics: Risk factor (51%), Population (51%)

1 Citations


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55 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE12820
23 Jan 2014-Nature
Abstract: Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.

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Topics: Microbiome (58%), Enterotype (55%), Gastrointestinal Microbiome (53%) ... read more

5,438 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1014296
Dariush Mozaffarian1, Tao Hao2, Eric B. Rimm2, Walter C. Willett2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: BackgroundSpecific dietary and other lifestyle behaviors may affect the success of the straightforward-sounding strategy “eat less and exercise more” for preventing long-term weight gain. MethodsWe performed prospective investigations involving three separate cohorts that included 120,877 U.S. women and men who were free of chronic diseases and not obese at baseline, with follow-up periods from 1986 to 2006, 1991 to 2003, and 1986 to 2006. The relationships between changes in lifestyle factors and weight change were evaluated at 4-year intervals, with multivariable adjustments made for age, baseline body-mass index for each period, and all lifestyle factors simultaneously. Cohort-specific and sex-specific results were similar and were pooled with the use of an inverse-variance–weighted meta-analysis. ResultsWithin each 4-year period, participants gained an average of 3.35 lb (5th to 95th percentile, −4.1 to 12.4). On the basis of increased daily servings of individual dietary components, 4-year weight cha...

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Topics: Weight change (60%), Weight gain (54%)

1,950 Citations


Open accessBook
26 Nov 1987-
Abstract: * El libro se ha traducido por el Instituto Nacional de Higiene, Epidemiologia y Microbiologia, y sus 10 capitulos se publicaran proximamente en esta Revista. Publicado por la Editorial Routledge, Londres y Nueva York, 1989, 211 paginas. En ingles. El libro presenta nuevas evidencias de las desigualdades en salud encontradas entre poblaciones o comunidades en diferentes areas del norte de Inglaterra y relata las tendencias a largo plazo que tienen lugar en los patrones de salud de Inglaterra, explora hasta donde las desigualdades en los niveles de salud pueden ser explicadas por la carencia material.

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1,415 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/AJE/KWX246
Abstract: The UK Biobank cohort is a population-based cohort of 500,000 participants recruited in the United Kingdom (UK) between 2006 and 2010. Approximately 9.2 million individuals aged 40-69 years who lived within 25 miles (40 km) of one of 22 assessment centers in England, Wales, and Scotland were invited to enter the cohort, and 5.5% participated in the baseline assessment. The representativeness of the UK Biobank cohort was investigated by comparing demographic characteristics between nonresponders and responders. Sociodemographic, physical, lifestyle, and health-related characteristics of the cohort were compared with nationally representative data sources. UK Biobank participants were more likely to be older, to be female, and to live in less socioeconomically deprived areas than nonparticipants. Compared with the general population, participants were less likely to be obese, to smoke, and to drink alcohol on a daily basis and had fewer self-reported health conditions. At age 70-74 years, rates of all-cause mortality and total cancer incidence were 46.2% and 11.8% lower, respectively, in men and 55.5% and 18.1% lower, respectively, in women than in the general population of the same age. UK Biobank is not representative of the sampling population; there is evidence of a "healthy volunteer" selection bias. Nonetheless, valid assessment of exposure-disease relationships may be widely generalizable and does not require participants to be representative of the population at large.

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Topics: Population (57%), Cohort (57%), Biobank (53%) ... read more

1,023 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977
01 Jun 2010-Circulation
Abstract: Background— Meat consumption is inconsistently associated with development of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes mellitus, limiting quantitative recommendations for consumption leve...

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Topics: Red Meat Consumption (60%), Stroke (52%), Diabetes mellitus (52%) ... read more

956 Citations


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