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Journal ArticleDOI

Mechanical stiffening, bistability, and bit operations in a microcantilever

11 Nov 2010-Applied Physics Letters (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 97, Iss: 19, pp 193107

AbstractWe investigate the nonlinear dynamics of microcantilevers. We demonstrate mechanical stiffening of the frequency response at large amplitudes, originating from the geometric nonlinearity. At strong driving the cantilever amplitude is bistable. We map the bistable regime as a function of drive frequency and amplitude, and suggest several applications for the bistable microcantilever, of which a mechanical memory is demonstrated.

Topics: Bistability (59%), Frequency response (51%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides insight into the mechanical phenomena that occur in suspended mechanical structures when either biological adsorption or interactions take place on their surface: mass, surface stress, effective Young's modulus and viscoelasticity.
Abstract: The advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies enable the preparation of increasingly smaller mechanical transducers capable of detecting the forces, motion, mechanical properties and masses that emerge in biomolecular interactions and fundamental biological processes. Thus, biosensors based on nanomechanical systems have gained considerable relevance in the last decade. This review provides insight into the mechanical phenomena that occur in suspended mechanical structures when either biological adsorption or interactions take place on their surface. This review guides the reader through the parameters that change as a consequence of biomolecular adsorption: mass, surface stress, effective Young's modulus and viscoelasticity. The mathematical background needed to correctly interpret the output signals from nanomechanical biosensors is also outlined here. Other practical issues reviewed are the immobilization of biomolecular receptors on the surface of nanomechanical systems and methods to attain that in large arrays of sensors. We then describe some relevant realizations of biosensor devices based on nanomechanical systems that harness some of the mechanical effects cited above. We finally discuss the intrinsic detection limits of the devices and the limitation that arises from non-specific adsorption.

286 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high-amplitude operation of a buckled resonator coupled to an optical cavity is demonstrated by using a highly efficient process to generate enough phonons in the resonator to overcome the energy barrier in the double-well potential.
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206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2- bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Abstract: In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

116 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An experimental protocol and a highly linear transduction scheme, specifically designed for NEMS, that enables accurate, in situ characterization of device nonlinearities and assessment of the validity of the approach is found.
Abstract: Understanding and controlling nonlinear coupling between vibrational modes is critical for the development of advanced nanomechanical devices; it has important implications for applications ranging from quantitative sensing to fundamental research. However, achieving accurate experimental characterization of nonlinearities in nanomechanical systems (NEMS) is problematic. Currently employed detection and actuation schemes themselves tend to be highly nonlinear, and this unrelated nonlinear response has been inadvertently convolved into many previous measurements. In this Letter we describe an experimental protocol and a highly linear transduction scheme, specifically designed for NEMS, that enables accurate, in situ characterization of device nonlinearities. By comparing predictions from Euler–Bernoulli theory for the intra- and intermodal nonlinearities of a doubly clamped beam, we assess the validity of our approach and find excellent agreement.

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro- and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development. In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its predictions deviate strongly from our measurements for the nonlinearity of the fundamental flexural mode, which show a systematic dependence on aspect ratio (length/width) together with random scatter. This contrasts with the second mode, which is always found to be in good agreement with theory. These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation.

101 citations


References
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342 citations


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304 citations