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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.642737

Mechanism and Control of Meiotic DNA Double-Strand Break Formation in S. cerevisiae.

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 9, pp 642737-642737
Abstract: Developmentally programmed formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by Spo11 initiates a recombination mechanism that promotes synapsis and the subsequent segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Although DSBs are induced to high levels in meiosis, their formation and repair are tightly regulated to minimize potentially dangerous consequences for genomic integrity. In S. cerevisiae, nine proteins participate with Spo11 in DSB formation, but their molecular functions have been challenging to define. Here, we describe our current view of the mechanism of meiotic DSB formation based on recent advances in the characterization of the structure and function of DSB proteins and discuss regulatory pathways in the light of recent models.

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Topics: Meiotic DNA double-strand break formation (67%), Spo11 (63%), Synapsis (60%) ... show more

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.688878
Corinne Grey1, Bernard de Massy1Institutions (1)
Abstract: One of the most fascinating aspects of meiosis is the extensive reorganization of the genome at the prophase of the first meiotic division (prophase I). The first steps of this reorganization are observed with the establishment of an axis structure, that connects sister chromatids, from which emanate arrays of chromatin loops. This axis structure, called the axial element, consists of various proteins, such as cohesins, HORMA-domain proteins, and axial element proteins. In many organisms, axial elements are required to set the stage for efficient sister chromatid cohesion and meiotic recombination, necessary for the recognition of the homologous chromosomes. Here, we review the different actors involved in axial element formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mouse. We describe the current knowledge of their localization pattern during prophase I, their functional interdependence, their role in sister chromatid cohesion, loop axis formation, homolog pairing before meiotic recombination, and recombination. We also address further challenges that need to be resolved, to fully understand the interplay between the chromosome structure and the different molecular steps that take place in early prophase I, which lead to the successful outcome of meiosis I.

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Topics: Prophase (64%), Establishment of sister chromatid cohesion (63%), Sister chromatids (60%) ... show more

6 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLCEL.2021.08.003
21 Oct 2021-Molecular Cell
Abstract: Currently favored models for meiotic recombination posit that both noncrossover and crossover recombination are initiated by DNA double-strand breaks but form by different mechanisms: noncrossovers by synthesis-dependent strand annealing and crossovers by formation and resolution of double Holliday junctions centered around the break. This dual mechanism hypothesis predicts different hybrid DNA patterns in noncrossover and crossover recombinants. We show that these predictions are not upheld, by mapping with unprecedented resolution parental strand contributions to recombinants at a model locus. Instead, break repair in both noncrossovers and crossovers involves synthesis-dependent strand annealing, often with multiple rounds of strand invasion. Crossover-specific double Holliday junction formation occurs via processes involving branch migration as an integral feature, one that can be separated from repair of the break itself. These findings reveal meiotic recombination to be a highly dynamic process and prompt a new view of the relationship between crossover and noncrossover recombination.

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Topics: Strand invasion (63%), Branch migration (61%), Holliday junction (59%) ... show more

2 Citations

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.08.13.456249
13 Aug 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Meiotic recombination is triggered by programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs), a subset of these being repaired as crossovers, promoted by eight evolutionarily conserved proteins, named ZMM. Crossover formation is functionally linked to synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly between homologous chromosomes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that Ecm11, a SC central element protein, localizes on both DSB sites and sites that attach chromatin loops to the chromosome axis, which are the starting points of SC formation, in a way that strictly requires the ZMM protein Zip4. Furthermore, Zip4 directly interacts with Ecm11 and point mutants that specifically abolish this interaction lose Ecm11 binding to chromosomes and exhibit defective SC assembly. This can be partially rescued by artificially tethering interaction-defective Ecm11 to Zip4. Mechanistically, this direct connection ensuring SC assembly from CO sites could be a way for the meiotic cell to shut down further DSB formation once enough recombination sites have been selected for crossovers, thereby preventing excess crossovers. Finally, the mammalian ortholog of Zip4, TEX11, also interacts with the SC central element TEX12, suggesting a general mechanism.

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Topics: Synaptonemal complex assembly (64%), Synaptonemal complex (61%), Central element (56.99%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKAB715
Abstract: In the current meiotic recombination initiation model, the SPO11 catalytic subunits associate with MTOPVIB to form a Topoisomerase VI-like complex that generates DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Four additional proteins, PRD1/AtMEI1, PRD2/AtMEI4, PRD3/AtMER2 and the plant specific DFO are required for meiotic DSB formation. Here we show that (i) MTOPVIB and PRD1 provide the link between the catalytic sub-complex and the other DSB proteins, (ii) PRD3/AtMER2, while localized to the axis, does not assemble a canonical pre-DSB complex but establishes a direct link between the DSB-forming and resection machineries, (iii) DFO controls MTOPVIB foci formation and is part of a divergent RMM-like complex including PHS1/AtREC114 and PRD2/AtMEI4 but not PRD3/AtMER2, (iv) PHS1/AtREC114 is absolutely unnecessary for DSB formation despite having a conserved position within the DSB protein network and (v) MTOPVIB and PRD2/AtMEI4 interact directly with chromosome axis proteins to anchor the meiotic DSB machinery to the axis.

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Topics: Spo11 (61%), Homologous recombination (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPLS.2021.745070
Abstract: Programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), necessary for proper chromosomal segregation and viable gamete formation, are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) as crossovers (COs) or non-crossovers (NCOs). The mechanisms regulating the number and distribution of COs are still poorly understood. The regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) DNA helicase was previously shown to enforce the number of meiotic COs in Caenorhabditis elegans but its function in plants has been studied only in the vegetative phase. Here, we characterised barley RTEL1 gene structure and expression using RNA-seq data previously obtained from vegetative and reproductive organs and tissues. Using RNAi, we downregulated RTEL1 expression specifically in reproductive tissues and analysed its impact on recombination using a barley 50k iSelect SNP Array. Unlike in C. elegans, in a population segregating for RTEL1 downregulated by RNAi, high resolution genome-wide genetic analysis revealed a significant increase of COs at distal chromosomal regions of barley without a change in their total number. Our data reveal the important role of RTEL1 helicase in plant meiosis and control of recombination.

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Topics: Homologous recombination (56.99%), Meiosis (53%), Population (52%) ... show more


211 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM.2017.7
Abstract: In addition to membrane-bound organelles, eukaryotic cells feature various membraneless compartments, including the centrosome, the nucleolus and various granules. Many of these compartments form through liquid–liquid phase separation, and the principles, mechanisms and regulation of their assembly as well as their cellular functions are now beginning to emerge. Biomolecular condensates are micron-scale compartments in eukaryotic cells that lack surrounding membranes but function to concentrate proteins and nucleic acids. These condensates are involved in diverse processes, including RNA metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, the DNA damage response and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown that liquid–liquid phase separation driven by multivalent macromolecular interactions is an important organizing principle for biomolecular condensates. With this physical framework, it is now possible to explain how the assembly, composition, physical properties and biochemical and cellular functions of these important structures are regulated.

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Topics: Biological phase (52%), Ribosome biogenesis (51%)

1,988 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81876-0
07 Feb 1997-Cell
Abstract: Meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae is initiated by double-strand breaks (DSBs). In certain mutants, breaks accumulate with a covalently attached protein, suggesting that cleavage is catalyzed by the DSB-associated protein via a topoisomerase-like transesterase mechanism. We have purified these protein-DNA complexes and identified the protein as Spo11, one of several proteins required for DSB formation. These findings strongly implicate Spo11 as the catalytic subunit of the meiotic DNA cleavage activity. This is the first identification of a biochemical function for any of the gene products involved in DSB formation. Spo11 defines a protein family with other members in fission yeast, nematodes, and archaebacteria. The S. pombe homolog, rec12p, is also known to be required for meiotic recombination. Thus, these findings provide direct evidence that the mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation is evolutionarily conserved.

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Topics: Meiotic DNA double-strand break formation (70%), Spo11 (69%), DMC1 (67%) ... show more

1,581 Citations

Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) serves to eliminate deleterious lesions, such as double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks, from chromosomes. HR is also critical for the preservation of repli- cation forks, for telomere maintenance, and chromosome segrega- tion in meiosis I. As such, HR is indispensable for the maintenance of genome integrity and the avoidance of cancers in humans. The HR reaction is mediated by a conserved class of enzymes termed recombinases. Two recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, catalyze the pairing and shuffling of homologous DNA sequences in eukaryotic cells via a filamentous intermediate on ssDNA called the presynaptic filament. The assembly of the presynaptic filament is a rate-limiting process that is enhanced by recombination mediators, such as the breast tumor suppressor BRCA2. HR accessory factors that facil- itate other stages of the Rad51- and Dmc1-catalyzed homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange reaction have also been identified. Recent progress on elucidating the mechanisms of action of Rad51 and Dmc1 and their cohorts of ancillary factors is reviewed here.

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Topics: RAD51 (63%), Non-homologous end joining (60%), Homologous recombination (59%) ... show more

1,406 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10879
Pilong Li1, Sudeep Banjade1, Hui-Chun Cheng1, Soyeon Kim1  +10 moreInstitutions (5)
15 Mar 2012-Nature
Abstract: Cells are organized on length scales ranging from angstrom to micrometres. However, the mechanisms by which angstrom-scale molecular properties are translated to micrometre-scale macroscopic properties are not well understood. Here we show that interactions between diverse synthetic, multivalent macromolecules (including multi-domain proteins and RNA) produce sharp liquid-liquid-demixing phase separations, generating micrometre-sized liquid droplets in aqueous solution. This macroscopic transition corresponds to a molecular transition between small complexes and large, dynamic supramolecular polymers. The concentrations needed for phase transition are directly related to the valency of the interacting species. In the case of the actin-regulatory protein called neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) interacting with its established biological partners NCK and phosphorylated nephrin, the phase transition corresponds to a sharp increase in activity towards an actin nucleation factor, the Arp2/3 complex. The transition is governed by the degree of phosphorylation of nephrin, explaining how this property of the system can be controlled to regulatory effect by kinases. The widespread occurrence of multivalent systems suggests that phase transitions may be used to spatially organize and biochemically regulate information throughout biology.

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Topics: Biological phase (56%), Actin nucleation (55%), Phase transition (52%)

1,308 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.GENET.33.1.603
Denise Zickler1, Nancy KlecknerInstitutions (1)
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Meiotic chromosomes have been studied for many years, in part because of the fundamental life processes they represent, but also because meiosis involves the formation of homolog pairs, ...

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Topics: Synapsis (59%), Synaptonemal complex assembly (55%), MSH4 (54%) ... show more

1,138 Citations

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