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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1725402

Mechanistic dissection of macro- and micronucleophagy.

04 Mar 2021-Autophagy (Autophagy)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 626-639
Abstract: Nucleophagy, the mechanism for autophagic degradation of nuclear material, occurs in both a macro- and micronucleophagic manner. Upon nitrogen deprivation, we observed, in an in-depth fluorescence microscopy study, the formation of micronuclei: small parts of superfluous nuclear components surrounded by perinuclear ER. We identified two types of micronuclei associated with a corresponding autophagic mode. Our results showed that macronucleophagy degraded these smaller micronuclei. Engulfed in Atg8-positive phagophores and containing cargo receptor Atg39, macronucleophagic structures revealed finger-like extensions when observed in 3-dimensional reconstitutions of fluorescence microscopy images, suggesting directional growth. Interestingly, in the late stages of phagophore elongation, the adjacent vacuolar membrane showed a reduction of integral membrane protein Pho8. This change in membrane composition could indicate the formation of a specialized vacuolar domain, required for autophagosomal fusion. Significantly larger micronuclei formed at nucleus vacuole junctions and were identified as a substrate of piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN), by the presence of the integral membrane protein Nvj1. Micronuclei sequestered by vacuolar invaginations also contained Atg39. A detailed investigation revealed that both Atg39 and Atg8 accumulated between the vacuolar tips. These findings suggest a role for Atg39 in micronucleophagy. Indeed, following the degradation of Nvj1, an exclusive substrate of PMN, in immunoblots, we could confirm the essential role of Atg39 for PMN. Our study thus details the involvement of Atg8 in both macronucleophagy and PMN and identifies Atg39 as the general cargo receptor for nucleophagic processes.Abbreviations: DIC: Differential interference contrast, FWHM: Full width at half maximum, IQR: Interquartile range, MIPA: Micropexophagy-specific membrane apparatus, NLS: Nuclear localization signal, NVJ: Nucleus vacuole junction, PMN: Piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus, pnER: Perinuclear ER.

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Topics: Microautophagy (61%), Nucleus-vacuole junction (57%), Nucleophagy (54%) ... read more
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13 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1242/JCS.246322
Sebastian Schuck1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Autophagy is fundamental for cell and organismal health. Two types of autophagy are conserved in eukaryotes: macroautophagy and microautophagy. During macroautophagy, autophagosomes deliver cytoplasmic constituents to endosomes or lysosomes, whereas during microautophagy lytic organelles take up cytoplasm directly. While macroautophagy has been investigated extensively, microautophagy has received much less attention. Nonetheless, it has become clear that microautophagy has a broad range of functions in biosynthetic transport, metabolic adaptation, organelle remodeling and quality control. This Review discusses the selective and non-selective microautophagic processes known in yeast, plants and animals. Based on the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of microautophagic cargo into lytic organelles, I propose to distinguish between fission-type microautophagy, which depends on ESCRT proteins, and fusion-type microautophagy, which requires the core autophagy machinery and SNARE proteins. Many questions remain to be explored, but the functional versatility and mechanistic diversity of microautophagy are beginning to emerge.

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Topics: Microautophagy (70%)

65 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1083/JCB.201910063
Yui Tomioka1, Tetsuya Kotani1, Hiromi Kirisako1, Yu Oikawa1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The mechanisms underlying turnover of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and the component nucleoporins (Nups) are still poorly understood. In this study, we found that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers NPC degradation by autophagy upon the inactivation of Tor kinase complex 1. This degradation largely depends on the selective autophagy-specific factor Atg11 and the autophagy receptor-binding ability of Atg8, suggesting that the NPC is degraded via receptor-dependent selective autophagy. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that NPCs embedded in nuclear envelope-derived double-membrane vesicles are sequestered within autophagosomes. At least two pathways are involved in NPC degradation: Atg39-dependent nucleophagy (selective autophagy of the nucleus) and a pathway involving an unknown receptor. In addition, we found the interaction between Nup159 and Atg8 via the Atg8-family interacting motif is important for degradation of this nucleoporin not assembled into the NPC. Thus, this study provides the first evidence for autophagic degradation of the NPC and Nups, which we term "NPC-phagy" and "nucleoporinophagy."

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Topics: Nucleoporin (61%), Nucleophagy (61%), ATG8 (57%) ... read more

20 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEB.2021.01.004
Abstract: Micronuclei are small membrane-bounded compartments with a DNA content encapsulated by a nuclear envelope and spatially separated from the primary nucleus. Micronuclei have long been linked to chromosome instability, genome rearrangements, and mutagenesis. They are frequently found in cancers, during senescence, and after genotoxic stress. Compromised integrity of the micronuclear envelope delays or disrupts DNA replication, inhibits DNA repair, and exposes micronuclear DNA directly to cytoplasm. Micronuclei play a central role in tumorigenesis, with micronuclear DNA being a source of complex genome rearrangements (including chromothripsis) and promoting a cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated cellular immune response that may contribute to cancer metastasis. Here, we discuss recent findings on how micronuclei are generated, what the consequences are, and what cellular mechanisms can be applied to protect against micronucleation.

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Topics: Chromothripsis (59%), DNA repair (56%), Micronucleus test (53%) ... read more

8 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS21124506
Florian B. Otto1, Michael Thumm1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Nucleophagy, the selective subtype of autophagy that targets nuclear material for autophagic degradation, was not only shown to be a model system for the study of selective macroautophagy, but also for elucidating the role of the core autophagic machinery within microautophagy Nucleophagy also emerged as a system associated with a variety of disease conditions including cancer, neurodegeneration and ageing Nucleophagic processes are part of natural cell development, but also act as a response to various stress conditions Upon releasing small portions of nuclear material, micronuclei, the autophagic machinery transfers these micronuclei to the vacuole for subsequent degradation Despite sharing many cargos and requiring the core autophagic machinery, recent investigations revealed the aspects that set macro- and micronucleophagy apart Central to the discrepancies found between macro- and micronucleophagy is the nucleus vacuole junction, a large membrane contact site formed between nucleus and vacuole Exclusion of nuclear pore complexes from the junction and its exclusive degradation by micronucleophagy reveal compositional differences in cargo Regarding their shared reliance on the core autophagic machinery, micronucleophagy does not involve normal autophagosome biogenesis observed for macronucleophagy, but instead maintains a unique role in overall microautophagy, with the autophagic machinery accumulating at the neck of budding vesicles

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Topics: Microautophagy (69%), Nucleus-vacuole junction (58%), Nucleophagy (54%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.634690
Xi-Min Hu1, Zhi-Xin Li1, Rui-Han Lin1, Jia-Qi Shan1  +9 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Over the past few years, the field of regulated cell death continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple regulated cell death pathways are being unveiled. Meanwhile, researchers are focused on targeting these regulated pathways which are closely associated with various diseases for diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. However, the complexity of the mechanisms and the difficulties of distinguishing among various regulated types of cell death make it harder to carry out the work and delay its progression. Here, we provide a systematic guideline for the fundamental detection and distinction of the major regulated cell death pathways following morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Moreover, a comprehensive evaluation of different assay methods is critically reviewed, helping researchers to make a reliable selection from among the cell death assays. Also, we highlight the recent events that have demonstrated some novel regulated cell death processes, including newly reported biomarkers (e.g., non-coding RNA, exosomes, and proteins) and detection techniques.

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3 Citations


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44 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2019
01 Jul 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

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Topics: Software design (51%), Software (50%)

30,888 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/122.1.19
Robert S. Sikorski1, Philip Hieter1Institutions (1)
01 May 1989-Genetics
Abstract: A series of yeast shuttle vectors and host strains has been created to allow more efficient manipulation of DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transplacement vectors were constructed and used to derive yeast strains containing nonreverting his3, trp1, leu2 and ura3 mutations. A set of YCp and YIp vectors (pRS series) was then made based on the backbone of the multipurpose plasmid pBLUESCRIPT. These pRS vectors are all uniform in structure and differ only in the yeast selectable marker gene used (HIS3, TRP1, LEU2 and URA3). They possess all of the attributes of pBLUESCRIPT and several yeast-specific features as well. Using a pRS vector, one can perform most standard DNA manipulations in the same plasmid that is introduced into yeast.

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Topics: Shuttle vector (60%), URA3 (54%), Plasmid (53%) ... read more

8,103 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/YEA.1142
01 Aug 2004-Yeast
Abstract: Tagging of genes by chromosomal integration of PCR amplified cassettes is a widely used and fast method to label proteins in vivo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This strategy directs the amplified tags to the desired chromosomal loci due to flanking homologous sequences provided by the PCR-primers, thus enabling the selective introduction of any sequence at any place of a gene, e.g. for the generation of C-terminal tagged genes or for the exchange of the promoter and N-terminal tagging of a gene. To make this method most powerful we constructed a series of 76 novel cassettes, containing a broad variety of C-terminal epitope tags as well as nine different promoter substitutions in combination with N-terminal tags. Furthermore, new selection markers have been introduced. The tags include the so far brightest and most yeast-optimized version of the red fluorescent protein, called RedStar2, as well as all other commonly used fluorescent proteins and tags used for the detection and purification of proteins and protein complexes. Using the provided cassettes for N- and C-terminal gene tagging or for deletion of any given gene, a set of only four primers is required, which makes this method very cost-effective and reproducible. This new toolbox should help to speed up the analysis of gene function in yeast, on the level of single genes, as well as in systematic approaches.

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Topics: Gene targeting (50%)

1,693 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/EMBOJ/20.21.5971
01 Nov 2001-The EMBO Journal
Abstract: Macroautophagy is a bulk degradation process induced by starvation in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, 15 Apg proteins coordinate the formation of autophagosomes. Several key reactions performed by these proteins have been described, but a comprehensive understanding of the overall network is still lacking. Based on Apg protein localization, we have identified a novel structure that functions in autophagosome formation. This pre-autophagosomal structure, containing at least five Apg proteins, i.e. Apg1p, Apg2p, Apg5p, Aut7p/Apg8p and Apg16p, is localized in the vicinity of the vacuole. Analysis of apg mutants revealed that the formation of both a phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Aut7p and an Apg12p- Apg5p conjugate is essential for the localization of Aut7p to the pre-autophagosomal structure. Vps30p/Apg6p and Apg14p, components of an autophagy- specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, Apg9p and Apg16p are all required for the localization of Apg5p and Aut7p to the structure. The Apg1p protein kinase complex functions in the late stage of autophagosome formation. Here, we present the classification of Apg proteins into three groups that reflect each step of autophagosome formation.

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Topics: Autophagosome membrane (66%), Autophagosome (63%), Atg1 (59%) ... read more

918 Citations


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