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Journal ArticleDOI

Medicaid prescription drug policies and medication access and continuity: findings from ten states.

01 May 2009-Psychiatric Services (American Psychiatric Association)-Vol. 60, Iss: 5, pp 601-610

TL;DR: It is indicated that more effective Medicaid prescription drug management and financing practices are needed to promote medication continuity and improve treatment outcomes.

AbstractObjectives: The aims of this study were to compare medication access problems among psychiatric patients in ten state Medicaid programs, assess adverse events associated with medication access problems, and determine whether prescription drug utilization management is associated with access problems and adverse events. Methods: Psychiatrists from the American Medical Association’s Masterfile were randomly selected (N=4,866). Sixty-two percent responded; 32% treated Medicaid patients and were randomly assigned a start day and time to report on two Medicaid patients (N=1,625 patients). Results: A medication access problem in the past year was reported for a mean±SE of 48.3%±2.0% of the patients, with a 37.6% absolute difference between states with the lowest and highest rates (p<.001). The most common access problems were not being able to access clinically indicated medication refills or new prescriptions because Medicaid would not cover or approve them (34.0%±1.9%), prescribing a medication not clinically preferred because clinically indicated or preferred medications were not covered or approved (29.4%±1.8%), and discontinuing medications as a result of prescription drug coverage or management issues (25.8%±1.6%). With patient case mix adjusted to control for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, patients with medication access problems had 3.6 times greater likelihood of adverse events (p<.001), including emergency visits, hospitalizations, homelessness, suicidal ideation or behavior, or incarceration. Also, all prescription drug management features were significantly associated with increased medication access problems and adverse events (p<.001). States with more access problems had significantly higher adverse event rates (p<.001). Conclusions: These associations indicate that more effective Medicaid prescription drug management and financing practices are needed to promote medication continuity and improve treatment outcomes. (Psychiatric Services 60:601– 610, 2009)

Topics: Prescription drug (57%), Medicaid (55%), Medical prescription (55%), Adverse effect (53%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To estimate the impact of adherence to and persistence with atypical antipsychotics on health care costs and risk of hospitalization by controlling potential sources of endogeneity.
Abstract: Study Objective To estimate the impact of adherence to and persistence with atypical antipsychotics on health care costs and risk of hospitalization by controlling potential sources of endogeneity. Design Retrospective cohort study using medical and pharmacy claims data. Data Source Humana health care insurance database. Patients A total of 32,374 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and who had a prescription for noninjectable atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, asenapine, clozapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone), after a washout period of at least 180 days during which there was no use of any atypical antipsychotics, between January 2007 and June 2013. Measurements and Main Results The effects of adherence (proportion of days covered by all atypical antipsychotic prescription fills) to and persistence (time from initiation to discontinuation of therapy) with atypical antipsychotics on outcomes (all-cause total health care costs, medication costs, medical services costs, and inpatient admissions) were examined. To exclude potential bias due to mutual causality between drug use patterns and health care utilization, the effects of adherence and persistence measured in the first year on outcomes measured in the second year were investigated. Instrumental variable regressions using reimbursement rate and mail order as instrumental variables were conducted to correct potential endogeneity due to omitted variable bias. Being adherent decreased total costs by $19,497 (p<0.05), increased medication costs by $8194 (p<0.001), decreased medical services costs by $27,664 (p<0.001), and reduced hospitalization risk by 27% (p<0.001). Being persistent decreased individual total costs by $23,927 (p<0.05), increased medication costs by $10,278 (p<0.001), and decreased medical services costs by $34,178 (p<0.001). We could not identify a significant association between persistence and the risk of hospitalization. Conclusion Good adherence to and persistence with atypical antipsychotics led to lower total costs than poor adherence and persistence. Thus efforts should be made to improve adherence and persistence in patients taking atypical antipsychotics.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals face significant barriers to medication adherence and health care providers serving this population should be particularly attentive to nonadherence among younger patients and those with harmful or hazardous drinking patterns.
Abstract: Objectives: Medication adherence is an important determinant of successful medical treatment. Marginalized populations, such as homeless and vulnerably housed individuals, may face substantial barr...

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that aftercare in the month post-discharge increased the likelihood of readmission but not ED visit, which may indicate a relative lack of psychiatric services for youth.
Abstract: Objective U.S. and Canadian data demonstrate decreasing inpatient days, increasing nonurgent emergency department (ED) visits, and short supply of child psychiatrists. Our study aims to determine whether aftercare reduces ED visits and/or readmission in adolescents with first psychiatric hospitalization. Method We conducted a population-based cohort analysis using linked health administrative databases with accrual from April 1, 2002, to March 1, 2004. The study cohort included all 15- to 19-year-old adolescents with first psychiatric admission. Adolescents with and without aftercare in the month post-discharge were matched on their propensity to receive aftercare. Our primary outcome was time to first psychiatric ED visit or readmission. Secondary outcomes were time to first psychiatric ED visit and readmission, separately. Results We identified 4,472 adolescents with first-time psychiatric admission. Of these, 57% had aftercare in the month post-discharge. Propensity-score–based matching, which accounted for each individual's propensity for aftercare, produced a cohort of 3,004 adolescents. In matched analyses, relative to those with no aftercare in the month post-discharge, those with aftercare had increased likelihood of combined outcome (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05–1.42), and readmission (HR = 1.38, 95% CI=1.14–1.66), but not ED visits (HR = 1.14, 95% CI=0.95–1.37). Conclusions Our results are provocative: we found that aftercare in the month post-discharge increased the likelihood of readmission but not ED visit. Over and above confounding by severity and Canadian/U.S. systems differences, our results may indicate a relative lack of psychiatric services for youth. Our results point to the need for improved data capture of pediatric mental health service use.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Changes in the concept of adherence are described, a more comprehensive definition of adherence is presented that recognizes the role of patient‐provider transactions, and dynamic adherence, a six‐phase model, is introduced, which incorporates therole of transactional processes and other factors that influence patients’ adherence decisions.
Abstract: Nonadherence is the Achilles' heel of effective psychiatric treatment. It affects the resolution of mental health symptoms and interferes with the assessment of treatment response. The meaning of the term adherence has evolved over time and is now associated with a variety of definitions and measurement methods. The result has been a poorly operationalized and nonstandardized term that is often interpreted differently by providers and patients. Drawing extensively from the literature, this article aims to (1) describe changes in the concept of adherence, drawing from the mental health treatment literature, (2) present a more comprehensive definition of adherence that recognizes the role of patient-provider transactions, (3) introduce dynamic adherence, a six-phase model, which incorporates the role of transactional processes and other factors that influence patients’ adherence decisions, and (4) provide recommendations for providers to improve adherence as well as their relationships with patients.

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Many dually eligible patients had difficulty accessing psychiatric medications after implementation of Part D and were significantly more likely to visit psychiatric emergency departments than patients who did not experience difficulties, raising concerns about possible negative effects on quality of care.
Abstract: Objective: This study examined the occurrence of medication access problems and use of intensive mental health services after the transition in January 2006 from Medicaid drug coverage to Medicare Part D for persons dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare benefits. Methods: Psychiatrists randomly selected from the American Medical Association’s Physicians Masterfile reported on experiences of one systematically selected dually eligible patient (N=908) in the nine to 12 months after Part D implementation. Propensity score matching was used to compare use of psychiatric emergency department care and inpatient care between individuals who experienced a problem accessing a psychiatric medication after Part D and those who did not. Results: Approximately 44% of dually eligible patients were reported to have experienced a problem accessing medications. The likelihood of visiting an emergency department was significantly higher for those who experienced an access problem than for those who did not (mean odds ratio=1.75, mean p=.003). There was no difference in number of emergency department visits or hospitalizations for those who had at least one. Conclusions: Many dually eligible patients had difficulty accessing psychiatric medications after implementation of Part D. These patients were significantly more likely to visit psychiatric emergency departments than patients who did not experience difficulties. These findings raise concerns about possible negative effects on quality of care. Additional study is needed to understand the full effects of Part D on outcomes and functioning as well as treatment costs for this population. (Psychiatric Services 60:1169–1174, 2009)

28 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Strategies to assess and enhance medication adherence (or compliance) are reviewed, to help patients adhere to prescribed treatment regimens and avoid stigmatization.
Abstract: The full benefit of many effective medications will be achieved only if patients adhere to prescribed treatment regimens. Unfortunately, applying terms such as “noncompliant” and “nonadherent” to patients who do not consume every pill at the desired time can stigmatize them in their future relationships with health care providers. This article on medication adherence (or compliance) reviews strategies to assess and enhance this important aspect of patient care.

6,718 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Olanzapine was the most effective in terms of the rates of discontinuation, and the efficacy of the conventional antipsychotic agent perphenazine appeared similar to that of quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone.
Abstract: background The relative effectiveness of second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs as compared with that of older agents has been incompletely addressed, though newer agents are currently used far more commonly. We compared a first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine, with several newer drugs in a double-blind study. methods A total of 1493 patients with schizophrenia were recruited at 57 U.S. sites and randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (7.5 to 30 mg per day), perphenazine (8 to 32 mg per day), quetiapine (200 to 800 mg per day), or risperidone (1.5 to 6.0 mg per day) for up to 18 months. Ziprasidone (40 to 160 mg per day) was included after its approval by the Food and Drug Administration. The primary aim was to delineate differences in the overall effectiveness of these five treatments. results Overall, 74 percent of patients discontinued the study medication before 18 months (1061 of the 1432 patients who received at least one dose): 64 percent of those assigned to olanzapine, 75 percent of those assigned to perphenazine, 82 percent of those assigned to quetiapine, 74 percent of those assigned to risperidone, and 79 percent of those assigned to ziprasidone. The time to the discontinuation of treatment for any cause was significantly longer in the olanzapine group than in the quetiapine (P<0.001) or risperidone (P=0.002) group, but not in the perphenazine (P=0.021) or ziprasidone (P=0.028) group. The times to discontinuation because of intolerable side effects were similar among the groups, but the rates differed (P=0.04); olanzapine was associated with more discontinuation for weight gain or metabolic effects, and perphenazine was associated with more discontinuation for extrapyramidal effects. conclusions The majority of patients in each group discontinued their assigned treatment owing to inefficacy or intolerable side effects or for other reasons. Olanzapine was the most effective in terms of the rates of discontinuation, and the efficacy of the conventional antipsychotic agent perphenazine appeared similar to that of quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Olanzapine was associated with greater weight gain and increases in measures of glucose and lipid metabolism.

5,159 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The acute and longer-term treatment outcomes associated with each of four successive steps in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial are described and compared.
Abstract: Objective: This report describes the participants and compares the acute and longer-term treatment outcomes associated with each of four successive steps in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Method: A broadly representative adult outpatient sample with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder received one (N=3,671) to four (N=123) successive acute treatment steps. Those not achieving remission with or unable to tolerate a treatment step were encouraged to move to the next step. Those with an acceptable benefit, preferably symptom remission, from any particular step could enter a 12-month naturalistic follow-up phase. A score of ≤5 on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (QIDS-SR 16 ) (equivalent to ≤7 on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD 17 ]) defined remission; a QIDS-SR 16 total score of ≥11 (HRSD 17 ≥14) defined relapse. Results: The QIDS-SR 16 remission rates were 36.8%, 30.6%, 13.7%, and 13.0% for the first, second, t...

3,128 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is a high rate of relapse within 5 years of recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and this risk is diminished by maintenance antipsychotic drug treatment.
Abstract: Background We examined relapse after response to a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Methods Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were assessed on measures of psychopathologic variables, cognition, social functioning, and biological variables and treated according to a standardized algorithm. The sample for the relapse analyses consisted of 104 patients who responded to treatment of their index episode and were at risk for relapse. Results Five years after initial recovery, the cumulative first relapse rate was 81.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70.6%-93.2%); the second relapse rate was 78.0% (95% CI, 46.5%-100.0%). By 4 years after recovery from a second relapse, the cumulative third relapse rate was 86.2% (95% CI, 61.5%-100.0%). Discontinuing antipsychotic drug therapy increased the risk of relapse by almost 5 times (hazard ratio for an initial relapse, 4.89 [99% CI, 2.49-9.60]; hazard ratio for a second relapse, 4.57 [99% CI, 1.49-14.02]). Subsequent analyses controlling for antipsychotic drug use showed that patients with poor premorbid adaptation to school and premorbid social withdrawal relapsed earlier. Sex, diagnosis, obstetric complications, duration of psychotic illness before treatment, baseline symptoms, neuroendocrine measures, methylphenidate hydrochloride challenge response, neuropsychologic and magnetic resonance imaging measures, time to response of the initial episode, adverse effects during treatment, and presence of residual symptoms after the initial episode were not significantly related to time to relapse. Conclusions There is a high rate of relapse within 5 years of recovery from a first episode of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This risk is diminished by maintenance antipsychotic drug treatment.

1,134 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jan 2001-JAMA
TL;DR: Increased cost-sharing for prescription drugs in elderly persons and welfare recipients was followed by reductions in use of essential drugs and a higher rate of serious adverse events and ED visits associated with these reductions.
Abstract: ContextRising costs of medications and inequities in access have sparked calls for drug policy reform in the United States and Canada. Control of drug expenditures by prescription cost-sharing for elderly persons and poor persons is a contentious issue because little is known about the health impact in these subgroups.ObjectivesTo determine (1) the impact of introducing prescription drug cost-sharing on use of essential and less essential drugs among elderly persons and welfare recipients and (2) rates of emergency department (ED) visits and serious adverse events associated with reductions in drug use before and after policy implementation.Design and SettingInterrupted time-series analysis of data from 32 months before and 17 months after introduction of a prescription coinsurance and deductible cost-sharing policy in Quebec in 1996. Separate 10-month prepolicy control and postpolicy cohort studies were conducted to estimate the impact of the drug reform on adverse events.ParticipantsA random sample of 93 950 elderly persons and 55 333 adult welfare medication recipients.Main Outcome MeasuresMean daily number of essential and less essential drugs used per month, ED visits, and serious adverse events (hospitalization, nursing home admission, and mortality) before and after policy introduction.ResultsAfter cost-sharing was introduced, use of essential drugs decreased by 9.12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7%-9.6%) in elderly persons and by 14.42% (95% CI, 13.3%-15.6%) in welfare recipients; use of less essential drugs decreased by 15.14% (95% CI, 14.4%-15.9%) and 22.39% (95% CI, 20.9%-23.9%), respectively. The rate (per 10 000 person-months) of serious adverse events associated with reductions in use of essential drugs increased from 5.8 in the prepolicy control cohort to 12.6 in the postpolicy cohort in elderly persons (a net increase of 6.8 [95% CI, 5.6-8.0]) and from 14.7 to 27.6 in welfare recipients (a net increase of 12.9 [95% CI, 10.2-15.5]). Emergency department visit rates related to reductions in the use of essential drugs also increased by 14.2 (95% CI, 8.5-19.9) per 10 000 person-months in elderly persons (prepolicy control cohort, 32.9; postpolicy cohort, 47.1) and by 54.2 (95% CI, 33.5-74.8) among welfare recipients (prepolicy control cohort, 69.6; postpolicy cohort, 123.8). These increases were primarily due to an increase in the proportion of recipients who reduced their use of essential drugs. Reductions in the use of less essential drugs were not associated with an increase in risk of adverse events or ED visits.ConclusionsIn our study, increased cost-sharing for prescription drugs in elderly persons and welfare recipients was followed by reductions in use of essential drugs and a higher rate of serious adverse events and ED visits associated with these reductions.

866 citations