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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.593116

Medicinal Prospects of Antioxidants From Algal Sources in Cancer Therapy.

05 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Pharmacology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 593116-593116
Abstract: Though cancer therapeutics can successfully eradicate cancerous cells, the effectiveness of these medications is mostly restricted to several deleterious side effects. Therefore, to alleviate these side effects, antioxidant supplementation is often warranted, reducing reactive species levels and mitigating persistent oxidative damage. Thus, it can impede the growth of cancer cells while protecting the normal cells simultaneously. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics hinders further tumor development, prevents chemoresistance by improving the response to chemotherapy drugs, and enhances cancer patients' quality of life by alleviating side effects. Preclinical and clinical studies have been revealed the efficacy of using phytochemical and dietary antioxidants from different sources in treating chemo and radiation therapy-induced toxicities and enhancing treatment effectiveness. In this context, algae, both micro and macro, can be considered as alternative natural sources of antioxidants. Algae possess antioxidants from diverse groups, which can be exploited in the pharmaceutical industry. Despite having nutritional benefits, investigation and utilization of algal antioxidants are still in their infancy. This review article summarizes the prospective anticancer effect of twenty-three antioxidants from microalgae and their potential mechanism of action in cancer cells, as well as usage in cancer therapy. In addition, antioxidants from seaweeds, especially from edible species, are outlined, as well.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2021.111549
Abstract: Microalgae are being promoted as a superior alternative feedstock for sustainable biofuel production and recently they are also being increasingly recognized as phytoremediation agents in bioremediation. Other than these, microalgae have been utilized as a sustainable feed in aquaculture for many years. The success of microalgae as a feed is based on the nutritional quality of microalgae, which are rich in protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial biologically active components such as carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Standards for the evaluation of microalgae include the assessment of various qualities such as digestibility, bioavailability, and toxicity analysis. This review provides comprehensive information regarding the current status and desirable characteristics of microalgae as a feed ingredient. Feed quality assessments such as protein quality, toxicological and microbiological analysis for microalgae are discussed. The techno-functional components of microalgae are presented in the feed perspective. The utilization of microalgae in various animal husbandry sectors and aquaculture are summarized. The advantages – disadvantages of microalgae as a feed is also presented, along with future research prospects. In short, this review will provide an overall view of the nutritional quality of microalgae and its beneficial application as a sustainable feed ingredient.

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9 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12291-021-01011-X
Abstract: The identification and pharmacological validation of plant-based lead compounds for the cure of different diseases including cancer have always been globally strived. In addition to possessing numerous medicinal properties, many of the phytochemicals display antioxidant potential activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) causeoxidative stress leading to several severe diseases such as cancer. The antioxidants are substances that fight against ROS to protect the cells from their damaging effects. In the present study, the effects of methanol extract of Euglena tuba(ETME) have been evaluated for its antioxidant and antitumor potential against Dalton’s lymphoma (DL) introduced in BALB/cmice. After 24 h of intraperitoneal inoculation of DL cells in mice, ETME (300 mg kg−1 body weight) was administered intraperitoneally upto18 alternative days. On the 18th day, the mice were sacrificed; the blood and tissues (liver and brain) were collected to determine the tumor growth parameters including morphological, behavioural, haematological profile, and antioxidant indices. The results indicated that ETME exhibited significant antioxidative and antitumor properties when compared with the data from DL bearing mice. The results from the present study indicated that ETME contained remarkable antitumor efficacy, which was mediated through amelioration of oxidative stress. The data suggested that ETME could be used as a potential natural anticancer agent.

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Topics: Oxidative stress (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MD19100531
23 Sep 2021-Marine Drugs
Abstract: Acute inflammation is a key component of the immune system’s response to pathogens, toxic agents, or tissue injury, involving the stimulation of defense mechanisms aimed to removing pathogenic factors and restoring tissue homeostasis. However, uncontrolled acute inflammatory response may lead to chronic inflammation, which is involved in the development of many diseases, including cancer. Nowadays, the need to find new potential therapeutic compounds has raised the worldwide scientific interest to study the marine environment. Specifically, microalgae are considered rich sources of bioactive molecules, such as carotenoids, which are natural isoprenoid pigments with important beneficial effects for health due to their biological activities. Carotenoids are essential nutrients for mammals, but they are unable to synthesize them; instead, a dietary intake of these compounds is required. Carotenoids are classified as carotenes (hydrocarbon carotenoids), such as α- and β-carotene, and xanthophylls (oxygenate derivatives) including zeaxanthin, astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, lutein, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, and canthaxanthin. This review summarizes the present up-to-date knowledge of the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of microalgal carotenoids both in vitro and in vivo, as well as the latest status of human studies for their potential use in prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer.

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Topics: Tissue homeostasis (54%), Carotenoid (53%)


References
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOCEL.2006.07.001
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids and membranes, proteins, and DNA. In contrast, beneficial effects of ROS/RNS (e.g. superoxide radical and nitric oxide) occur at low/moderate concentrations and involve physiological roles in cellular responses to noxia, as for example in defence against infectious agents, in the function of a number of cellular signalling pathways, and the induction of a mitogenic response. Ironically, various ROS-mediated actions in fact protect cells against ROS-induced oxidative stress and re-establish or maintain "redox balance" termed also "redox homeostasis". The "two-faced" character of ROS is clearly substantiated. For example, a growing body of evidence shows that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. This review will describe the: (i) chemistry and biochemistry of ROS/RNS and sources of free radical generation; (ii) damage to DNA, to proteins, and to lipids by free radicals; (iii) role of antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) in the maintenance of cellular "redox homeostasis"; (iv) overview of ROS-induced signaling pathways; (v) role of ROS in redox regulation of normal physiological functions, as well as (vi) role of ROS in pathophysiological implications of altered redox regulation (human diseases and ageing). Attention is focussed on the ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis of cancer, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), rheumatoid arthritis, and ageing. Topics of current debate are also reviewed such as the question whether excessive formation of free radicals is a primary cause or a downstream consequence of tissue injury.

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Topics: Free-radical theory of aging (61%), Oxidative stress (60%), Reactive nitrogen species (55%) ... show more

10,980 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C4RA13315C
16 Mar 2015-RSC Advances
Abstract: The normal biochemical reactions in our body, increased exposure to the environment, and higher levels of dietary xenobiotic's result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The ROS and RNS create oxidative stress in different pathophysiological conditions. The reported chemical evidence suggests that dietary antioxidants help in disease prevention. The antioxidant compounds react in one-electron reactions with free radicals in vivo/in vitro and prevent oxidative damage. Therefore, it is very important to understand the reaction mechanism of antioxidants with the free radicals. This review elaborates the mechanism of action of the natural antioxidant compounds and assays for the evaluation of their antioxidant activities. The reaction mechanisms of the antioxidant assays are briefly discussed (165 references). Practical applications: understanding the reaction mechanisms can help in evaluating the antioxidant activity of various antioxidant compounds as well as in the development of novel antioxidants.

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1,032 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MD12010128
07 Jan 2014-Marine Drugs
Abstract: There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications.

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Topics: Haematococcus pluvialis (71%), Astaxanthin (66%), Haematococcus (52%) ... show more

922 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(96)01501-3
15 May 1997-Aquaculture
Abstract: Microalgae are used in mariculture as live feeds for all growth stages of molluscs, for the larval stages of crustaceans and some fish species, and for zooplankton used in mariculture food chains. In order to be nutritionally sufficient, microalgae must supply a balanced mixture of nutrients. We have studied the biochemical composition of about 40 species of microalgae from seven algal classes to define those that may be best adapted to the Australian conditions. Microalgae varied in their proportions of protein (6652%), carbohydrate (5523%) and lipid (7-23%). All species had similar amino acid composition, and were rich in the essential amino acids. Microalgal polysaccharides were variable in sugar composition, but most had high proportions of glucose (21~87%). Diatoms, prymnesiophytes, cryptomonads and eustigmatophytes were rich in one or both of the 20:5( n - 3) and 22:6( n - 3) polyunsaturated fatty acids important for marine fish larvae (5-35% total fatty acids), prasinophytes had low to moderate levels of one of the acids (4-10%) whereas chlorophytes were deficient in both acids (O-3%). All species had relatively high concentrations of ascorbic acid (l-16 mg g- ’ dry weight) and riboflavin (20-40 kg g-l). The likely nutritional values of the microalgae, based on their biochemical composition, are discussed. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

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Topics: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (54%), Ascorbic acid (53%), Mariculture (51%)

910 Citations


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