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Journal ArticleDOI

MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0

01 Dec 2013-Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 30, Iss: 12, pp 2725-2729

TL;DR: An advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis, is released, which enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny.
Abstract: We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
Topics: Mega- (51%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Sudhir Kumar1, Glen Stecher2, Koichiro Tamura3Institutions (3)
TL;DR: The latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine, has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets.
Abstract: We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

25,894 citations


Cites background or methods from "MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genet..."

  • ...calibrations with minimum and/or maximum constraints (Tamura et al. 2013)....

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  • ...Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software is now being applied to increasingly bigger datasets (Kumar et al. 1994; Tamura et al. 2013)....

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  • ...Kumar et al. . doi:10.1093/molbev/msw054 MBE D ow nloaded from https://academ ic.oup.com /m be/article-abstract/33/7/1870/2579089 by guest on 29 M arch 2019 calibrations with minimum and/or maximum constraints (Tamura et al. 2013)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil and revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta is described.
Abstract: Summary A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reversetranscriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

2,166 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Qihui Wang1, Yanfang Zhang1, Lili Wu1, Sheng Niu2  +13 moreInstitutions (6)
14 May 2020-Cell
TL;DR: The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS- coV- 2-CTD) spike (S) protein in complex with human ACE2 (hACE2) is presented, which reveals a hACE2-binding mode similar overall to that observed for SARS -CoV.
Abstract: The recent emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in China has caused significant public health concerns. Recently, ACE2 was reported as an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-CTD) spike (S) protein in complex with human ACE2 (hACE2), which reveals a hACE2-binding mode similar overall to that observed for SARS-CoV. However, atomic details at the binding interface demonstrate that key residue substitutions in SARS-CoV-2-CTD slightly strengthen the interaction and lead to higher affinity for receptor binding than SARS-RBD. Additionally, a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against SARS-CoV-S1/receptor-binding domain (RBD) were unable to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, indicating notable differences in antigenicity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. These findings shed light on the viral pathogenesis and provide important structural information regarding development of therapeutic countermeasures against the emerging virus.

1,533 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that beyond in silico predictions, testing with mock communities and field samples is important in primer selection, and a single mismatch can strongly bias amplification, but even perfectly matched primers can exhibit preferential amplification.
Abstract: Summary Microbial community analysis via high-throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes is an essential microbiology tool. We found the popular primer pair 515F (515F-C) and 806R greatly underestimated (e.g. SAR11) or overestimated (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria) common marine taxa. We evaluated marine samples and mock communities (containing 11 or 27 marine 16S clones), showing alternative primers 515F-Y (5′-GTGYCAGCMGCCGCGGTAA) and 926R (5′-CCGYCAATTYMTTTRAGTTT) yield more accurate estimates of mock community abundances, produce longer amplicons that can differentiate taxa unresolvable with 515F-C/806R, and amplify eukaryotic 18S rRNA. Mock communities amplified with 515F-Y/926R yielded closer observed community composition versus expected (r2 = 0.95) compared with 515F-Y/806R (r2 ∼ 0.5). Unexpectedly, biases with 515F-Y/806R against SAR11 in field samples (∼4–10-fold) were stronger than in mock communities (∼2-fold). Correcting a mismatch to Thaumarchaea in the 515F-C increased their apparent abundance in field samples, but not as much as using 926R rather than 806R. With plankton samples rich in eukaryotic DNA (> 1 μm size fraction), 18S sequences averaged ∼17% of all sequences. A single mismatch can strongly bias amplification, but even perfectly matched primers can exhibit preferential amplification. We show that beyond in silico predictions, testing with mock communities and field samples is important in primer selection.

1,258 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The time-scale phylogeny suggested that the common ancestors of the 2016 strains VP1 gene and RdRp region diverged in 2006 and 1999, respectively, and that the 2016 strain was the progeny of a pre-2016 GII.2.2 strains.
Abstract: In the 2016/2017 winter season in Japan, HuNoV GII.P16-GII.2 strains (2016 strains) emerged and caused large outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. To better understand the outbreaks, we examined the molecular evolution of the VP1 gene and RdRp region in 2016 strains from patients by studying their time-scale evolutionary phylogeny, positive/negative selection, conformational epitopes, and phylodynamics. The time-scale phylogeny suggested that the common ancestors of the 2016 strains VP1 gene and RdRp region diverged in 2006 and 1999, respectively, and that the 2016 strain was the progeny of a pre-2016 GII.2. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 gene and RdRp region were around 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Amino acid substitutions (position 341) in an epitope in the P2 domain of 2016 strains were not found in pre-2016 GII.2 strains. Bayesian skyline plot analyses showed that the effective population size of the VP1 gene in GII.2 strains was almost constant for those 50 years, although the number of patients with NoV GII.2 increased in 2016. The 2016 strain may be involved in future outbreaks in Japan and elsewhere.

1,099 citations


Cites methods from "MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genet..."

  • ...0 (Tamura et al., 2013)....

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  • ...To evaluate the genetic divergence of the VP1 gene and RdRp region, the pairwise distances were calculated using MEGA 6.0, as described (Tamura et al., 2013)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models, inferring ancestral states and sequences, and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site.
Abstract: Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from http://www.megasoftware.net.

37,583 citations


"MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genet..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...These algorithms were tested on simulated data sets that were analyzed in Tamura et al. (2011)....

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  • ...MEGA is currently distributed in two editions: a graphical user interface (GUI) edition with visual tools for exploration of data and analysis results (Tamura et al. 2011) and a command line edition (MEGA-CC), which is optimized for iterative and integrated pipeline analyses (Kumar et al. 2012)....

    [...]

  • ...MEGA is currently distributed in two editions: a graphical user interface (GUI) edition with visual tools for exploration of data and analysis results (Tamura et al. 2011) and a command line edition (MEGA-CC), which is optimized for iterative and integrated pipeline analyses (Kumar et al....

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  • ...The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software is developed for comparative analyses of DNA and protein sequences that are aimed at inferring the molecular evolutionary patterns of genes, genomes, and species over time (Kumar et al. 1994; Tamura et al. 2011)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA is provided.
Abstract: With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.

12,058 citations


Book
01 Jan 1983-
Abstract: Motoo Kimura, as founder of the neutral theory, is uniquely placed to write this book. He first proposed the theory in 1968 to explain the unexpectedly high rate of evolutionary change and very large amount of intraspecific variability at the molecular level that had been uncovered by new techniques in molecular biology. The theory - which asserts that the great majority of evolutionary changes at the molecular level are caused not by Darwinian selection but by random drift of selectively neutral mutants - has caused controversy ever since. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of this subject and the author synthesises a wealth of material - ranging from a historical perspective, through recent molecular discoveries, to sophisticated mathematical arguments - all presented in a most lucid manner.

7,833 citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202244
20212,806
20203,567
20194,244
20184,995
20176,078