scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Mercury in human hair and blood samples from people living in Wanshan mercury mine area, Guizhou, China: an XAS study.

01 Mar 2008-Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry (Elsevier)-Vol. 102, Iss: 3, pp 500-506

TL;DR: Inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples, while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) and quantification by ICP-MS.

AbstractHuman hair and blood samples from persons living in the town of Wanshan, a mercury mine area in Guizhou Province of China, were collected and the quantitative speciation and structural information of Hg and S in hair samples and of Hg in erythrocyte and serum samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Least-squares fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra found that inorganic mercury is the major mercury species in hair samples (91.74%), while inorganic and methyl mercury are both about 50% of total mercury in RBC and serum samples, which is in agreement with the data obtained by acidic extraction, fractionation of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg + and quantification by ICP-MS. Curve-fitting analysis revealed that the Hg–S bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.248 ± 0.002 nm and 3.10, respectively, while the S–Hg bond length and coordination number in hair were 0.236 ± 0.002 nm and 4.05. The Hg–S bond length and coordination number in RBC were 0.251 ± 0.003 nm and 4.09, respectively, while they were 0.228 ± 0.002 nm and 4.08 in serum, respectively. The techniques for speciation, structural and binding information described in this study will find the potential application in similar studies of other elements.

Topics: Mercury (element) (60%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The questions surrounding hair analysis are addressed with specific intent of discovering what hair concentrations can actually relate to in a biogenic sense, and why and how elements are incorporated into hair and their meaning.
Abstract: Hair analysis receives a large amount of academic and commercial interest for wide-ranging applications. However, in many instances, especially for elemental or ‘mineral’ analysis, the degree of success of analytical interpretation has been quite minimal with respect to the extent of such endeavors. In this critical review we address the questions surrounding hair analysis with specific intent of discovering what hair concentrations can actually relate to in a biogenic sense. This is done from a chemistry perspective to explain why and how elements are incorporated into hair and their meaning. This includes an overview of variables attributed to altering hair concentrations, such as age, gender, melanin content, and other less reported factors. Hair elemental concentrations are reviewed with regard to morbidity, with specific examples of disease related effects summarized. The application of hair analysis for epidemiology and etiology studies is enforced. A section is dedicated specifically to the area of population studies with regards to mercury, which highlights how endogenous and exogenous incorporation relies on species dependant metabolism and metabolic products. Many of the considerations are relevant to other areas of interest in hair analysis, such as for drug and isotopic analysis. Inclusion of a table of elemental concentrations in hair should act as a valuable reference (298 references).

131 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This is the fourth Atomic Spectrometry Update (ASU) to focus specifically on developments in elemental speciation and covers a period of approximately 12 months from January 2011. The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has evaluated speciation and provided a definition as follows: “speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample; the chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure; the speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system.” This review therefore deals with all aspects of the analytical speciation methods developed for: the determination of oxidation states; organometallic compounds; coordination compounds; metal and heteroatom-containing biomolecules, including metalloproteins, proteins, peptides and amino acids; and the use of metal-tagging to facilitate detection via atomic spectrometry. The review does not cover operationally defined ‘speciation’, which is correctly termed fractionation. As with all ASU reviews1–6 the coverage of the topic is confined to those methods that incorporate atomic spectrometry as the measurement technique. However, in the spirit of meeting the needs of the subject, material is incorporated that is not strictly “atomic spectrometry” but the separation or sample introduction technique used could also be coupled with an atomic spectrometry detector. For the most part, such procedures are those in which some form of molecular MS is used for speciation measurements. As the content of this Update shows, the field is now maturing as evidenced by the extent to which the speciation of particular elements or technique combinations have been the subject of review articles. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to ascertain the analytical details of the methodologies applied in speciation analysis, particularly where the paper is published in an ‘application’ based journal.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that Se at higher exposure levels would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg(2+) levels are higher than 1mg/L in culture media, and elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of HG in garlic.
Abstract: To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and selenite (SeO32-) or selenate (SeO42-). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (mu-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (mu-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (> 1 mg/L of SeO32- or SeO42-) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg2+ levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO32- and SeO42- were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using mu-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. mu-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg-S bonding as Hg(GSH)(2) and Hg(Met)(2). Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg-S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH)(2), together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

64 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis, suggesting that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.
Abstract: Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.

42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers, however, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.
Abstract: To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

34 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Whereas removal of certain forms of mercury, such as that in blood-pressure cuffs, will not cause increased health risks, removal of each of the three major sources described in this article entails health risks and thus poses a dilemma to the health professional.
Abstract: ercury has been used commercially and medically for centuries. In the past it was a common constituent of many medications. It is still used in hospitals in thermometers and blood-pressure cuffs and commercially in batteries, switches, and fluorescent light bulbs. Large quantities of metallic mercury are employed as electrodes in the electrolytic production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide from saline. These uses still give rise to accidental and occupational exposures. 1 Today, however, exposure of the general population comes from three major sources: fish consumption, dental amalgams, and vaccines. Each has its own characteristic form of mercury and distinctive toxicologic profile and clinical symptoms. Dental amalgams emit mercury vapor that is inhaled and absorbed into the bloodstream. Dentists and anyone with an amalgam filling are exposed to this form of mercury. Liquid metallic mercury (quicksilver) still finds its way into homes, causing a risk of poisoning from the vapor and creating major cleanup costs. Humans are also exposed to two distinct but related organic forms, methyl mercury (CH 3 Hg + ) and ethyl mercury (CH 3 CH 2 Hg + ). Fish are the main if not the only source of methyl mercury, since it is no longer used as a fungicide. In many countries, babies are exposed to ethyl mercury through vaccination, since this form is the active ingredient of the preservative thimerosal used in vaccines. Whereas removal of certain forms of mercury, such as that in blood-pressure cuffs, will not cause increased health risks, removal of each of the three major sources described in this article entails health risks and thus poses a dilemma to the health professional. Exposure to mercury from dental amalgams and fish consumption has been a concern for decades, but the possible risk associated with thimerosal is a much newer concern. These fears have been heightened by a recent recommendation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the allowable or safe daily intake of methyl mercury be reduced from 0.5 µg of mercury per kilogram of body weight per day, the threshold established by the World Health Organization in 1978, 2 to 0.1 µg of mercury per kilogram per day. 3 Table 1 summarizes the clinical toxicologic features of mercury vapor and methyl and ethyl mercury. It also includes data on inorganic divalent mercury, since this is believed to be the toxic species produced in tissues after inhalation of the vapor. 5 It is also responsible for kidney damage after exposure to ethyl mercury, since ethyl mercury is rapidly converted to the inorganic form. 13 Inorganic mercury as both mercuric and mercurous salts was also the chief cause of acrodynia, a childhood disease that is now mainly of historical interest. 14 The clinical symptoms of acrodynia consist of painful, red, swollen fingers and toes in association with photophobia, irritability, asthenia, and hypertension. It is believed to be a hypersensitivity reaction. m

1,444 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
T. Ressler1
TL;DR: WinXAS is a new X-ray absorption spectroscopy data-analysis program that contains a number of useful numerical algorithms beyond those used in conventional XAS analysis and offers a simple interface to the ab-initio theoretical code FEFF.
Abstract: WinXAS is a new X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data-analysis program. It runs under the operating system MS-Windows 95/NT and offers several unique features. It has a user-friendly graphical environment and is capable of reading a variety of data formats. It contains a number of useful numerical algorithms beyond those used in conventional XAS analysis and offers a simple interface to the ab-initio theoretical code FEFF. The availability of fast macros in WinXAS makes it particularly useful for on-line data examination at synchrotron radiation facilities during XAS experiments as well as for the analysis of multiple-scan data such as those from time-resolved experiments.

1,210 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
29 Aug 2003-Science
TL;DR: The primary dietary source of neurotoxic mercury compounds is via the ingestion of methylmercury species accumulated in fish, which has been linked to neurological damage (Minamata disease) and increased risk of myocardial infarction.
Abstract: The primary dietary source of neurotoxic mercury compounds is via the ingestion of methylmercury species accumulated in fish. Methylmercury from fish has been linked to neurological damage (Minamata disease) ([ 1 ][1]) and increased risk of myocardial infarction ([ 2 ][2]). Despite its importance,

1,157 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Total mercury, monomethylmercury (CH3Hg), and dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) in edible muscle were examined in 229 samples, representing seven freshwater and eight saltwater fish species and several sp...

1,137 citations