Metal-insulator transition at a depleted LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface: Evidence for charge transfer induced by SrTiO3 phase transitions
26 Oct 2011-Applied Physics Letters (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 99, Iss: 17, pp 172103
TL;DR: In this article, two anomalous bias dependent resistive peaks induced by the SrTiO3 structural phase transitions at 55 and 110 k were observed in a LaAlO3/SrTiO 3 and Nb:Sr TiO 3 rectifying junction when the LaAlAlO 3/SrinTiO 2 was depleted under reverse bias.
Abstract: Two anomalous bias dependent resistive peaks induced by the SrTiO3 structural phase transitions at 55 and 110 K were observed in a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and Nb:SrTiO3 rectifying junction when the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 was depleted under reverse bias. At these transition temperatures, the barrier between LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and Nb:SrTiO3 showed abrupt changes in the tunneling energy under forward bias. The peak at 110 K was an insulator-metal phase transition while the peak at 55 K was a metal-insulator one. We propose that the phase transitions of the SrTiO3 substrate influence the charge transfer to the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 layer, giving rise to these anomalous resistive peaks.
TL;DR: A clustering of the oxygen vacancies at the interface that favours the formation of coexisting ferromagnetic puddles spatially separated from the superconductivity and a carrier freeze-out at low temperatures are found.
Abstract: The two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface promises to add a new dimension to emerging electronic devices due to its high degree of tunability. Defects in the form of oxygen vacancies in titanate surfaces and interfaces, on the other hand, play a key role in the emergence of the ordered states and their tunability at the interface. On the basis of an effective model, we study the influence of oxygen vacancies on the superconductivity and ferromagnetism at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Using the Bogoliubov–de Gennes formulation in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation, we find a clustering of the oxygen vacancies at the interface that favours the formation of coexisting ferromagnetic puddles spatially separated from the superconductivity. We also find a carrier freeze-out at low temperatures, observed experimentally in a wide variety of samples. A sufficiently large amount of oxygen vacancies leads to pseudogap-like behaviour in the superconducting state.
TL;DR: In this paper, conductive LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures were studied at different oxygen pressures and power law fitting of resistance versus temperature measurements revealed fundamental characteristics of the conduction mechanism at the interface.
Abstract: We have studied conductive LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures deposited at different oxygen pressures. Photoluminescence spectra confirm the presence of a significant amount of oxygen vacancies in samples deposited at low oxygen pressures. Power law fitting of resistance versus temperature measurements reveals fundamental characteristics of the conduction mechanism at the interface. A distinct non-Fermi-liquid behavior is observed for samples grown in higher oxygen pressure, which give two-dimensionally confined conducting interfaces, whereas characteristic electron-electron scattering is observed for samples grown in lower oxygen pressures, as seen in bulk doped SrTiO3 (i.e., oxygen deficient SrTiO3). Transitions between different conduction modes occur throughout the studied temperature range (10–270 K) as a result of structural transformations in the near-surface region of the SrTiO3.
TL;DR: The highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between insulating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 shows low-temperature superconductivity coexisting with inhomogeneous ferromagnetism, and the role of spatial inhomogeneity in the superconducting and ferromagnetic states becomes important.
Abstract: The highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between insulating SrTiO$_3$ and LaAlO$_3$ shows low-temperature superconductivity coexisting with inhomogeneous ferromagnetism. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction with in-plane Zeeman field of the system favors $p_x \pm i p_y$-wave superconductivity at finite momentum. Owing to the intrinsic disorder at the interface, the role of spatial inhomogeneity on the superconducting and ferromagnetic states becomes important. We find that for strong disorder, the system breaks up into mutually excluded regions of superconductivity and ferromagnetism. This inhomogeneity-driven electronic phase separation accounts for the unusual coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism observed at the interface.
TL;DR: A designed a quasi-periodic Ni QDA embedded in a single crystal BaTiO3 matrix is shown and novel quantum resonant tunneling transport properties around room-temperature according to theoretical calculation and experiments are demonstrated.
Abstract: A self-assembled quantum dots array (QDA) is a low dimensional electron system applied to various quantum devices. This QDA, if embedded in a single crystal matrix, could be advantageous for quantum information science and technology. However, the quantum tunneling effect has been difficult to observe around room temperature thus far, because it occurs in a microcosmic and low temperature condition. Herein, we show a designed a quasi-periodic Ni QDA embedded in a single crystal BaTiO3 matrix and demonstrate novel quantum resonant tunneling transport properties around room-temperature according to theoretical calculation and experiments. The quantum tunneling process could be effectively modulated by changing the Ni QDA concentration. The major reason was that an applied weak electric field (∼102 V cm−1) could be enhanced by three orders of magnitude (∼105 V cm−1) between the Ni QDA because of the higher permittivity of BaTiO3 and the ‘hot spots’ of the Ni QDA. Compared with the pure BaTiO3 films, the samples with embedded Ni QDA displayed a stepped conductivity and temperature (σ–T curves) construction.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors synthesized and investigated the heterointerfaces of KTaO3 (KTO) and GdScO3(GSO), which are both polar complex-oxides along the pseudo-cubic  direction.
Abstract: We have synthesized and investigated the heterointerfaces of KTaO3 (KTO) and GdScO3 (GSO), which are both polar complex-oxides along the pseudo-cubic  direction. Since their layers have the same, conflicting net charges at interfaces, i.e., KO(−1)/ScO2(−1) or TaO2(+1)/GdO(+1), forming the heterointerface of KTO/GSO should be forbidden due to strong Coulomb repulsion, the so-called polarity conflict. However, we have discovered that atomic reconstruction occurs at the heterointerfaces between KTO thin-films and GSO substrates, which effectively alleviates the polarity conflict without destroying the hetero-epitaxy. Our result demonstrates one of the important ways to create artificial heterostructures from polar complex-oxides.
01 Mar 2009
TL;DR: A stable and reproducible superconductivity transition between 80 and 93 K has been unambiguously observed both resistively and magnetically in a new Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure.
Abstract: A stable and reproducible superconductivity transition between 80 and 93 K has been unambiguously observed both resistively and magnetically in a new Y-Ba-Cu-O compound system at ambient pressure. An estimated upper critical field H c2(0) between 80 and 180 T was obtained.
TL;DR: Enhanced polarization and related properties in heteroepitaxially constrained thin films of the ferroelectromagnet, BiFeO3, and combined functional responses in thin film form present an opportunity to create and implement thin film devices that actively couple the magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters.
Abstract: Enhancement of polarization and related properties in heteroepitaxially constrained thin films of the ferroelectromagnet, BiFeO3, is reported. Structure analysis indicates that the crystal structure of film is monoclinic in contrast to bulk, which is rhombohedral. The films display a room-temperature spontaneous polarization (50 to 60 microcoulombs per square centimeter) almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the bulk (6.1 microcoulombs per square centimeter). The observed enhancement is corroborated by first-principles calculations and found to originate from a high sensitivity of the polarization to small changes in lattice parameters. The films also exhibit enhanced thickness-dependent magnetism compared with the bulk. These enhanced and combined functional responses in thin film form present an opportunity to create and implement thin film devices that actively couple the magnetic and ferroelectric order parameters.
TL;DR: A model interface is examined between two insulating perovskite oxides—LaAlO3 and SrTiO3—in which the termination layer at the interface is controlled on an atomic scale, presenting a broad opportunity to tailor low-dimensional charge states by atomically engineered oxide heteroepitaxy.
Abstract: Polarity discontinuities at the interfaces between different crystalline materials (heterointerfaces) can lead to nontrivial local atomic and electronic structure, owing to the presence of dangling bonds and incomplete atomic coordinations. These discontinuities often arise in naturally layered oxide structures, such as the superconducting copper oxides and ferroelectric titanates, as well as in artificial thin film oxide heterostructures such as manganite tunnel junctions. If polarity discontinuities can be atomically controlled, unusual charge states that are inaccessible in bulk materials could be realized. Here we have examined a model interface between two insulating perovskite oxides--LaAlO3 and SrTiO3--in which we control the termination layer at the interface on an atomic scale. In the simple ionic limit, this interface presents an extra half electron or hole per two-dimensional unit cell, depending on the structure of the interface. The hole-doped interface is found to be insulating, whereas the electron-doped interface is conducting, with extremely high carrier mobility exceeding 10,000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1). At low temperature, dramatic magnetoresistance oscillations periodic with the inverse magnetic field are observed, indicating quantum transport. These results present a broad opportunity to tailor low-dimensional charge states by atomically engineered oxide heteroepitaxy.