Abstract: Frequently environmental pollution results from different hazardous substances released in the environment, meaning that contaminated sites may have many different chemical sources and transport pathways. Problems concerning environmental pollution affect mainly physical, chemical and biological properties of air, water and soil. The relationships between the sources, exposure and effects of contaminants to human and ecological receptors are complex and many times are specific to a particular site, to certain environmental conditions and to a particular receptor. Often the methodology for exposure and risk assessment to environmental pollution is translated into sets of assessment questions. These questions are used to meet the needs of assessment, particular important in focusing the assessment during the problem formulation. Risk assessments vary widely in scope and application. Some look at single risks in a range of exposure scenarios, others are site-specific and look at the range of risks posed by a facility. In general, risk assessments are carried out to examine the effects of an agent on humans (Health Risk Assessment) and ecosystems (Ecological Risk Assessment). Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) is the examination of risks resulting from technology that threaten ecosystems, animals and people. It includes human health risk assessments, ecological risk assessments and specific industrial applications of risk assessment that analyze identified end-points in people, biota or ecosystems.
Abstract: The anthropogenic sources for heavy metals include mining, industrial productions, untreated sewage sludge and combustion by-products produced by coal burning power plants. Atmospheric emissions are probably the most preoccupant to human health and to the environment due to either the great quantity involved, or their widespread dispersion. Mercury, lead and cadmium represent a great issue, mostly due to their ability to travel long distances in the atmosphere before deposition. Exposure assessment to emissions of heavy metals implies to identify and quantify the sources, how heavy metals may be dispersed in the environment and which adverse effects they might cause on human health and on the ecosystem. Heavy metals emissions and releases into the environment are available at the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR, 2010). In this data base main sources from 27 European countries are identified. Data concerning Cd, Hg and Pb were extracted for the year of 2007. This work focuses on the review and analysis of the principal sources of heavy metals emissions into the environment and their role in critical receptors’ environmental exposure. The review of the principal sources may give a clearer picture of the situation: the potential regions at risk and the extension of the contamination, essential to the exposure assessment by critical receptors. On the other hand, exposure assessments studies and consequent research allow a better knowledge of heavy metals sources, emissions, pathways and fate in the environment. Therefore both a complete exposure assessment and a consequent risk assessment are needed to establish the identification and implementation of measures to eliminate or to reduce the exposure.
TL;DR: The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a human health assessment program that evaluates quantitative and qualitative risk information on effects that may result from exposure to environmental contaminants.
Abstract: The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a human health assessment program that evaluates quantitative and qualitative risk information on effects that may result from exposure to environmental contaminants. IRIS was initially developed for EPA staff in response to a growing demand for consistent information on substances for use in risk assessments, decision-making, and regulatory activities. The information in IRIS is intended for those without extensive training in toxicology, but with some knowledge of health sciences.
Abstract: This manual provides information on the design and application of the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) code. It describes the basic models and parameters used in the RESRAD code to calculate doses and risks from residual radioactive materials and the procedures for applying these models to calculate operational guidelines for soil contamination. RESRAD has undergone many improvements to make it more realistic in terms of the models used in the code and the parameters used as defaults. Version 6 contains a total of 145 radionuclides (92 principal and 53 associated radionuclides), and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to 1 month. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include its ability to run uncertainty analyses, additional options for graphical and text output, a better dose conversion factor editor, updated databases, a better groundwater transport model for long decay chains, an external ground radiation pathway model, an inhalation area factor model, time-integration of dose and risk, and a better graphical user interface. In addition, RESRAD has been benchmarked against other codes in the environmental assessment and site cleanup arena, and RESRAD models have been verified and validated.
Abstract: The aim of this book is to give an overview of the methods for, and application of, environmental risk assessment in the European Union. It provides information on the basic concepts applicable to all environmental risk assessments including human health risk assessments, ecological risk assessments and industrial applications of risk assessment. Existing knowledge and research in this field is vast and this book aims to identify unifying concepts, discuss currently used methodologies, examine their application and give examples of risk assessment in practice, and guide the user to information sources relevant to their needs. Part I of this guidebook provides an introduction to the subject area, Part II provides comprehensive sources of specific, further information for each area covered in the text, including (1) international and national organisations; databases; software models; publications; directories; web sites and the European legislation relevant to environmental risk assessment.
"Methodology for Exposure and Risk A..." refers background or methods in this paper
...It includes human health risk assessments, ecological risk assessments and specific industrial applications of risk assessment that analyze identified endpoints in people, biota or ecosystems (Fairman et al., 1998)....
...This step has laid down in the European legislation of new and existing substances (Fairman et al., 1998)....
...This may include an estimate of how many individuals experienced the health effects over time or measures indicating environmental damages as well as the uncertainty involved in these estimates; it should include and report an uncertainty analysis (Fairman et al., 1998)....
...The data for consequence assessment are mostly based on toxicity and ecotoxicity testing, epidemiology and dose-response models (Fairman et al., 1998)....
...But if this ratio cannot be reduced to below 1 by refinement of the ratio (by gathering of further information and further testing), risk reduction measures are necessary (Fairman et al., 1998)....
Abstract: Passive integrating solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used to study the Radon-222 (Rn) concentrations in Indian dwellings. The study was made in 300 dwellings in the cities of Lucknow and Kanpur in northern India. The influence of some factors e.g. age of the house, number of floors and ventilation conditions, etc. on indoor Rn concentrations were studied. The equilibrium factor in 65 dwellings were also investigated. Average Rn concentrations in living rooms were found to be 34±8 Bq.m−3 and 40±10 Bq.m−3 respectively, with equilibrium factors of 0.35 and 0.38. Assuming an occupancy factor of 0.8, the annual average effective dose equivalents in living rooms of the two places are estimated as 0.8 and 1.0 mSv respectively. The average life-time risks of lung cancer for radon exposure of the Lucknow and Kanpur populations at home would be about 0.26% and 0.34% respectively and the mean relative loss of life expectancies were 0.06% and 0.074% respectively.