scispace - formally typeset
SciSpace - Your AI assistant to discover and understand research papers | Product Hunt

Proceedings ArticleDOI

Metrical Routing using Ad-Hoc Networks in Hierarchical Environment

01 Oct 2006-pp 61-68

TL;DR: The results show that for the MRA algorithm one "flat" network is sufficient, and there is no need to use clustering methods, and that the GEO satellite constitutes a ubiquitous mediator that contributes to the connectivity and stability of the network.

AbstractThe need to rapidly deploy military forces in unknown areas without the ability to use existing ground-based communication infrastructure requires the use of ad-hoc communication networks. Transmission limitations motivates the use of a hierarchal routing mechanism that enables each soldier to communicate with distant soldiers using intermediate powerful nodes that hover within the transmission radius. Our research combines various types of transmitters, including short-range personal transmitters, vehicle-mounted transmitters, helicopters and a geostationary earth-orbit (GEO) satellite. Each of these entities possesses a different communication range, velocity, and altitude. We consider the various tradeoffs rising from such a heterogeneous theater, and compare two ad-hoc protocols - AODV, which is based on dynamic updates of local cached routing tables, and MRA, which is based on dynamic updates of virtual coordinates. Our results show that for the MRA algorithm one "flat" network is sufficient, and there is no need to use clustering methods. We further show that the GEO satellite constitutes a ubiquitous mediator that contributes to the connectivity and stability of the network.

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

References
More filters

Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Oct 2002
TL;DR: A new heterogeneous routing protocol specifically designed for the hierarchical ad hoc network is proposed and a new active clustering scheme is presented to help build a stable hierarchical structure, which is fundamental toheterogeneous routing protocols.
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is usually assumed to be homogeneous, where each mobile node shares the same radio capacity. However, a homogeneous ad hoc network suffers from poor scalability. Research has demonstrated its performance bottleneck both theoretically and through simulation experiments. Building a physically hierarchical ad hoc network is a very promising way to achieve scalability. Routing is critical to operate such a hierarchical structure efficiently. Previous research has been solely focusing on extending popular routing schemes developed for the homogeneous ad hoc network. We propose a new heterogeneous routing protocol specifically designed for the hierarchical ad hoc network. We also present a new active clustering scheme to help build a stable hierarchical structure, which is fundamental to heterogeneous routing protocols. Simulation results using GloMoSim show that our routing and clustering scheme gives good performance. The results also provide some insight into new possible designs of routing protocols and mobile network architectures for MANETs when large scale is desired.

178 citations


"Metrical Routing using Ad-Hoc Netwo..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...We consider the various tradeoffs rising from such a heterogeneous theater, and compare two ad-hoc protocols – AODV, which is based on dynamic updates of local cached routing tables, and MRA, which is based on dynamic updates of virtual coordinates....

    [...]

  • ...However, clustering too has several drawbacks: (1) there is a significant overhead to maintain the cluster (e.g., electing the cluster head and maintaining the cluster's members); (2) initiating a local session inside the cluster must be started using the cluster head; (3) the centralization of…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Adaptive Routing using Clusters protocol is presented, a protocol that creates a cluster hierarchy composed of cluster leaders and gateway nodes to interconnect clusters and introduces a new algorithm for cluster leader revocation that eliminates the ripple effect caused by leadership changes.
Abstract: Clustering is a method by which nodes are hierarchically organized on the basis of their relative proximity to one another. Routes can be recorded hierarchically, across clusters, to increase routing flexibility. Hierarchical routing greatly increases the scalability of routing in ad hoc networks by increasing the robustness of routes. This paper presents the Adaptive Routing using Clusters (ARC) protocol, a protocol that creates a cluster hierarchy composed of cluster leaders and gateway nodes to interconnect clusters. ARC introduces a new algorithm for cluster leader revocation that eliminates the ripple effect caused by leadership changes. Further, ARC utilizes a limited broadcast algorithm for reducing the impact of network floods. The performance of ARC is evaluated by comparing it both with other clustering schemes and with an on-demand ad hoc routing protocol. It is shown that the cluster topology created by ARC is more stable than that created by other clustering algorithms and that the use of ARC can result in throughput increases of over 100%. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

126 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Sep 2000
TL;DR: H hierarchical state routing (HSR) is modified to have an intelligent selection algorithm to reduce the system latency caused by the long propagation delay of the UAV channel and the throughput will be improved.
Abstract: Large homogeneous ad hoc wireless networks have a problem: the bandwidth available to a mobile user decreases as the number of nodes in the network increases. Using the embedded ad-hoc networking mechanism, nodes are able to transport packets across the network in a multihop fashion. An embedded mobile backbone is dynamically constructed to form a 2-level physical heterogeneous multihop wireless network. These backbone nodes provide two critical functions: (1) direct communication between neighboring cluster heads; and (2) efficient route discovery in HSR. With the broadcast feature of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the link state can be broadcast to backbone nodes instead of "flooding" on the level 2. Thus, the routing overhead can be tremendously reduced, and the throughput will be improved. We modified hierarchical state routing (HSR) to have an intelligent selection algorithm to reduce the system latency caused by the long propagation delay of the UAV channel. The performance of the system is evaluated through simulation experiments.

109 citations


"Metrical Routing using Ad-Hoc Netwo..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...One problem of existing ad-hoc protocols is scalability, namely how many nodes can communicate (number of ad-hoc parallel sessions) using a given adhoc protocol....

    [...]

  • ...We further show that the GEO satellite constitutes a ubiquitous mediator that contributes to the connectivity and stability of the network....

    [...]

  • ...…D. L. Gu et al., “UAV-Aided Intelligent Routing for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks in Single-Area Theater,” In IEEE WCNC, 2000. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/gu00uav.html [3] K. Xu., M. Gerla, “A Heterogeneous Routing Protocol Based on a New Stable Clustering Scheme”,…...

    [...]

  • ...The use of clustered protocols, however, hampers the possibility to use a "flat/uniform" ad-hoc protocol that uniformly connects all types of nodes/transmitters in the theater without making the more powerful nodes act as cluster heads....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The HOLSR mechanism is derived from the O LSR protocol; however, unlike OLSR, the HOLSR protocol takes advantage of different mobile node capabilities to reduce the routing control overhead in large heterogeneous ad hoc networks, thus improving the performance of the routing mechanism.
Abstract: This article reviews the hierarchical optimized link state routing (HOLSR) mechanism for heterogeneous mobile ad hoc networks. In this work a heterogeneous mobile ad hoc network is defined as a network of mobile nodes that are characterized by different communications capabilities, such as multiple radio interfaces. The article focuses on proposing the HOLSR protocol. The HOLSR mechanism is derived from the OLSR protocol; however, unlike OLSR, the HOLSR protocol takes advantage of different mobile node capabilities to reduce the routing control overhead in large heterogeneous ad hoc networks, thus improving the performance of the routing mechanism.

109 citations


"Metrical Routing using Ad-Hoc Netwo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Ref. [ 7 ] defines the scalability as "the ability of a network to adjust or maintain its performance when the number of the nodes increases"....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Kaixin Xu1, Xiaoyan Hong1, Mario Gerla1, H. Ly1, D.L. Gu1 
28 Oct 2001
TL;DR: It is shown how backbone links and UAV links are automatically discovered by the LANMAR routing algorithm and are used effectively to reach remote destinations (thus reducing the hop distance), which will combine the benefits of "flat" LAN MAR routing and physical network hierarchy.
Abstract: In the future automated battle field communications will be supported in part by a hierarchical wireless network that includes: ad hoc ground radio subnets; point to point wireless long haul backbone, and; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In such a hierarchical network, nodes are generally partitioned into groups. Each group has one or more backbone nodes that provide access points to the backbone network and to UAVs. Communications between groups can thus utilize links at higher level. A critical protocol in the operation of such a large mobile network is routing. Previous research of UAV based systems has generally assumed the use of a hierarchical routing scheme, for example, extended hierarchical state routing (EHSR). However, a hierarchical scheme like EHSR has some limitations. In this paper, we extend landmark ad hoc routing (LANMAR) to a hierarchical structure with backbone nodes, high quality backbone links and UAVs. We show that the basic LANMAR scheme can be extended to incorporate backbone and UAV links. We will also show how backbone links and UAV links are automatically discovered by the LANMAR routing algorithm and are used effectively to reach remote destinations (thus reducing the hop distance). In other words, our scheme will combine the benefits of "flat" LANMAR routing and physical network hierarchy, without suffering of the intrinsic EHSR limitations.

55 citations


"Metrical Routing using Ad-Hoc Netwo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…cluster's members); (2) initiating a local session inside the cluster must be started using the cluster head; (3) the centralization of routes via the cluster-heads [4], i.e., sessions that can be routed through two "near" clusters must now be routed through their cluster heads; (4) clustered…...

    [...]