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Book ChapterDOI

Micro-electro-mechanical system–based drug delivery devices

01 Jan 2019-pp 183-210
TL;DR: This chapter provides an insight into the basics of various drug delivery devices, their principles, description of various components used in the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) device manufacturing, along with the state-of-the-art review of existing MEMS-based drug Delivery devices.
Abstract: Safe delivery of drugs inside living organism is always a great challenge. Drug intake below and above prescribed limits may cause unseen and severe health problems. In addition to the amount of dose, another critical issue is to deliver drugs inside the body. Preferable drug delivery modes are oral, inhalation, nasal, rectal routes, or via injection. Further, there are situations when a drug has to be released over a specific duration in a controlled mode. In order to have scientific solutions to the problems and challenges faced, researchers have come up with various drug delivery devices. This field has resorted to various micro-fabrication techniques and fluidic principles coupled with the assistance of electrical and mechanical engineering knowledge. It has observed a series of developments in device optimization. These devices have been developed for real-time monitoring and measurement of drug delivery and thus may have several components (micro-pump, micro-needles, microfluidic channels, micro-sensors, essential electronic circuits, and so on). Keeping up with the vast development in the field of drug delivery devices, this chapter provides an insight into the basics of various drug delivery devices, their principles, description of various components used in the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) device manufacturing, along with the state-of-the-art review of existing MEMS-based drug delivery devices.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2021
TL;DR: In this article, a simple and energy-efficient approach for the bottom-up fabrication of porous polymeric film, which possesses unique surface, structural and bulk properties, followed by its comprehensive study through various characterization techniques.
Abstract: The paper dwells upon the elaboration of a simple and energy-efficient approach for the “bottom-up” fabrication of porous polymeric film, which possesses unique surface, structural and bulk properties, followed by its comprehensive study through various characterization techniques. The fabricated film is multi-layered methyl silsesquioxane and suitably modified with the help of several treatments making the film compatible for biosensing applications. Film characterization reports the self- organized topography of the film deposited over the substrate and confirms the successful bonding between the polymers. The influence of the concentration of polypropylene glycol, which itself acts as thermally labile dendrimer, is studied by observing its bond formation ensuring polymer mixing by using FTIR. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis has been performed for the confirmation of elements. In addition to this, the nanoporous film is also studied with the help of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry for the determination of film porosity and refractive index. In this analysis, Cauchy model and graded-index model were chosen for data analysis and the Bruggeman effective medium approximation method was used for evaluating the optical constant. The surface of the porous film has been treated with different silane surfaces, characterized with the help of FTIR, UV-VIS, and AFM and envisioned for protein immobilization.

8 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper , a simple and inexpensive leak-proof paper pad with an initial selection of a paper substrate on the grounds of surface morphology and fluid absorption time was used for glucose detection on a paper pad through colorimetric analysis.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of graphite particles on surface morphologies, compositions, and coating thickness were investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, EDS, and XRD.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a robust model deducing the spark gap in a single discharge in µ-EDM needs to be designed to evaluate various phenomena in the pre-breakdown period, which involves various variables and is highly complicated.

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References
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Journal Article
30 Apr 1998-Nature
TL;DR: When a pharmaceutical agent is encapsulated within, or attached to, a polymer or lipid, drug safety and efficacy can be greatly improved and new therapies are possible.
Abstract: When a pharmaceutical agent is encapsulated within, or attached to, a polymer or lipid, drug safety and efficacy can be greatly improved and new therapies are possible. This has provided the impetus for active study of the design of degradable materials, intelligent delivery systems and approaches for delivery through different portals in the body.

2,195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Building off a strong technology base and multiple demonstrations of successful drug delivery, microneedles are poised to advance further into clinical practice to enable better pharmaceutical therapies, vaccination and other applications.

1,271 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.
Abstract: Drug delivery is the method or process of administering a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in humans or animals. For the treatment of human diseases, nasal and pulmonary routes of drug delivery are gaining increasing importance. These routes provide promising alternatives to parenteral drug delivery particularly for peptide and protein therapeutics. For this purpose, several drug delivery systems have been formulated and are being investigated for nasal and pulmonary delivery. These include liposomes, proliposomes, microspheres, gels, prodrugs, cyclodextrins, among others. Nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers show assurance in fulfilling the stringent requirements placed on these delivery systems, such as ability to be transferred into an aerosol, stability against forces generated during aerosolization, biocompatibility, targeting of specific sites or cell populations in the lung, release of the drug in a predetermined manner, and degradation within an acceptable period of time.

1,137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Advances in instrumentation and experimental design have led to the increasing application of optical biosensors in many areas of drug discovery, including target identification, ligand fishing, assay development, lead selection, early ADME and manufacturing quality control.
Abstract: Optical biosensors that exploit surface plasmon resonance, waveguides and resonant mirrors have been used widely over the past decade to analyse biomolecular interactions. These sensors allow the determination of the affinity and kinetics of a wide variety of molecular interactions in real time, without the need for a molecular tag or label. Advances in instrumentation and experimental design have led to the increasing application of optical biosensors in many areas of drug discovery, including target identification, ligand fishing, assay development, lead selection, early ADME and manufacturing quality control. This article reviews important advances in optical-biosensor instrumentation and applications, and also highlights some exciting developments, such as highly multiplexed optical-biosensor arrays.

975 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices is provided before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers.
Abstract: The aim of microfluidic mixing is to achieve a thorough and rapid mixing of multiple samples in microscale devices. In such devices, sample mixing is essentially achieved by enhancing the diffusion effect between the different species flows. Broadly speaking, microfluidic mixing schemes can be categorized as either “active”, where an external energy force is applied to perturb the sample species, or “passive”, where the contact area and contact time of the species samples are increased through specially-designed microchannel configurations. Many mixers have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 10 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the field of microfluidic mixing devices before describing some of the more significant proposals for active and passive mixers.

910 citations

Trending Questions (1)
What are electronic devices used for intraoral drug delivery system?

The provided paper does not mention electronic devices used for intraoral drug delivery system.