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Book ChapterDOI

Microalgae in Biotechnological Application: A Commercial Approach

01 Jan 2015-pp 27-47

TL;DR: The aim of this review is to summarize the commercial applications of microalgae.
Abstract: Microalgae are used as food, feed, and fodder and also used to produce a wide range of metabolites such as, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, carotenoids, vitamins, fatty acids, sterols, etc. They are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional food and feed preparations and hence positively affect humans and animal health including aquaculture animals. They also provide a key tool for phycoremediation of toxic metals and nanometal production. The use of microalgae in nanotechnology is a promising field of research with a green approach. The use of genetically modified algae for better production of different biotechnological compounds of interests is popular nowadays. Microalgal biomass production for sustainable biofuel production together with other high-value compounds in a cost-effective way is the major challenge of algal biotechnologists. Microalgal biotechnology is similar to conventional agriculture but has received quite a lot of attention over the last decades, because they can reach substantially higher productivities than traditional crops and can use the wastelands and the large marine ecosystem. As history has shown, research studies on microalgae have been numerous and varied, but they have not always resulted in commercial applications. The aim of this review is to summarize the commercial applications of microalgae.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This comprehensive review summarizes the most important and recent developments of microalgae use as supplement or feed additive to replace fishmeal and fish oil for use in aquaculture.
Abstract: Due to the rapid global expansion of the aquaculture industry, access to key feedstuffs (fishmeal and fish oil) is becoming increasingly limited because of the finite resources available for wild fish harvesting. This has resulted in other sources of feedstuffs being investigated, namely plant origin substitutes for fishmeal and fish oil for aquafeed. Conventional land-based crops have been favored for some applications as substitutes for a portion of the fishmeal, but they can result in changes in the nutritional quality of the fish produced. Microalgae can be regarded as a promising alternative that can replace fishmeal and fish oil and ensure sustainability standards in aquaculture. They have a potential for use in aquaculture as they are sources of protein, lipid, vitamins, minerals, pigments, etc. This comprehensive review summarizes the most important and recent developments of microalgae use as supplement or feed additive to replace fishmeal and fish oil for use in aquaculture. It also reflects the microalgal nutritional quality and digestibility of microalgae-based aquafeed. Simultaneously, safety and regulatory aspects of microalgae feed applications, major challenges on the use microalgae in aquafeed in commercial production, and future research and development perspective are also presented in a critical manner. This review will serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge and highlight key areas for future development of a microalgae-based aquafeed industry and overall development of a sustainable aquaculture industry.

144 citations


Cites background from "Microalgae in Biotechnological Appl..."

  • ...The insertion of genes or genetic manipulation of microalgae can improve the nutritional quality of microalgae which could eventually increase the quality of fish fed with aquafeed (supplemented with microalgae) (Li and Tsai 2009; Khatoon and Pal 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Chlorella nbsp and nbsp Spirulina are the two of the most well known microalgae genus Both microalgae genus have a significant content of proteins vitamins pigments fatty acids sterols among others which make their production application by the food industry quite interesting nbsp Chlorella genus is a eukaryotic microorganism whereas Spirulina genus cyanobacteria is a prokaryotic microorganism The aim of this review was to provide an overview on Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae particularly as an alternative source of functional foods nutraceuticals and food supplements in which the following compound groups were addressed I Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids II Phenolic Compounds III Volatile Compounds IV Sterols V Proteins Amino Acids Peptides VI Vitamins VII Polysaccharides VIII Pigments and IX Food Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae and their derivatives are concluded not to be widely commercially exploited However they are remarkable sources of functional foods nutraceuticals and food supplements

96 citations


Cites background from "Microalgae in Biotechnological Appl..."

  • ...Table 1: Chlorella and Spirulina commercialized for human nutrition [31]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The methods of mass production of cyanobacterial biofertilizers and their applications in agriculture and industrial level are described.
Abstract: Continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy posing threat to environment needs, sustainable supply of food and energy. The most ecofriendly approach 'green technology' has been exploited for biofertilizer preparation. Cyanobacteria are the most successful and sustained prokaryotic organism during the course of evolution. They are considered as one of the primitive life forms found on our planet. Cyanobacteria are emerging candidates for efficiently conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy. This biological system produces oxygen as a by-product. Cyanobacterial biomass can also be used for the large scale production of food, energy, biofertilizers, secondary metabolites, cosmetics and medicines. Therefore, cyanobacteria are used in ecofriendly sustainable agricultural practice for production of biomass of very high value and decreasing the level of CO2. This review article describes the methods of mass production of cyanobacterial biofertilizers and their applications in agriculture and industrial level.

59 citations


Cites background from "Microalgae in Biotechnological Appl..."

  • ...There are many techniques have been developed to maintain these parameters; however, the associated costs usually, offset the cost advantage of using natural sunlight [84]....

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  • ...Transparent material such as plastic or glass is used for making vessels which are placed outdoors in the natural light for illumination [84]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sustainable supply of food and energy without posing any threat to environment is the current demand of our society in view of continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy. Cyanobacteria have recently emerged as potential candidates who can fulfil abovementioned needs due to their ability to efficiently harvest solar energy and convert it into biomass by simple utilization of CO2, water and nutrients. During conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy, these biological systems produce oxygen as a by-product. Cyanobacterial biomass can be used for the production of food, energy, biofertilizers, secondary metabolites of nutritional, cosmetics and medicinal importance. Therefore, cyanobacterial farming is proposed as environment friendly sustainable agricultural practice which can produce biomass of very high value. Additionally, cyanobacterial farming helps in decreasing the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., CO2, and it can be also used for removing various contaminants from wastewater and soil. However, utilization of cyanobacteria for resolving the abovementioned problems is subjected to economic viability. In this review, we provide details on different aspects of cyanobacterial system that can help in developing sustainable agricultural practices. We also describe different large-scale cultivation systems for cyanobacterial farming and discuss their merits and demerits in terms of economic profitability.

57 citations


Cites background from "Microalgae in Biotechnological Appl..."

  • ...Techniques have been developed to maintain these parameters; however, the associated costs usually offset the cost advantage of using natural sunlight (Khatoon and Pal, 2015)....

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  • ...In these systems, transparent material made up of plastic or glass is used for making vessels which are placed outdoors in the natural light for illumination (Figure 3B) (Khatoon and Pal, 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work reviews five microalgae genera: Dunaliella, Botryococcus, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Arthrospira, considered among the most promising for commercial biotechnological applications, and discusses potential applications.
Abstract: In either unicellular or multi-cellular form, microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms, mainly known for being part of the human diet in several world regions. More recently, they have been in the spotlight of researchers, not only because of their nutritional value, but also due to their high value-added components. This work reviews five microalgae genera: Dunaliella, Botryococcus, Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Arthrospira, considered among the most promising for commercial biotechnological applications. The analysis shows that, although the research paradigms are generally shared among species, parameterization changes of culture environment and stress conditions, several applications can be envisaged for the cultivated species, which is discussed in this work. Besides, several applications in which these microalgae are being widely used, or are intended to be used, are analyzed and discussed. The potential applications depend on the type of metabolites found in each microalgae species, which is discussed in this work, giving examples of application and describing methods for their cultivation, harvesting and biomass processing. Thus, in addition to being used in human diet supplementation, microalgae can be used as ingredients for animal feed, medicines, cosmetics pigments, biofuels, bioplastics and biostimulants.

31 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Although gold is the subject of one of the most ancient themes of investigation in science, its renaissance now leads to an exponentially increasing number of publications, especially in the context of emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology with nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We will limit the present review to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), also called gold colloids. AuNPs are the most stable metal nanoparticles, and they present fascinating aspects such as their assembly of multiple types involving materials science, the behavior of the individual particles, size-related electronic, magnetic and optical properties (quantum size effect), and their applications to catalysis and biology. Their promises are in these fields as well as in the bottom-up approach of nanotechnology, and they will be key materials and building block in the 21st century. Whereas the extraction of gold started in the 5th millennium B.C. near Varna (Bulgaria) and reached 10 tons per year in Egypt around 1200-1300 B.C. when the marvelous statue of Touthankamon was constructed, it is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. In antiquity, materials were used in an ecological sense for both aesthetic and curative purposes. Colloidal gold was used to make ruby glass 293 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293−346

11,193 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yusuf Chisti1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels.
Abstract: Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Unfortunately, biodiesel from oil crops, waste cooking oil and animal fat cannot realistically satisfy even a small fraction of the existing demand for transport fuels. As demonstrated here, microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Like plants, microalgae use sunlight to produce oils but they do so more efficiently than crop plants. Oil productivity of many microalgae greatly exceeds the oil productivity of the best producing oil crops. Approaches for making microalgal biodiesel economically competitive with petrodiesel are discussed.

8,281 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that, after exposure to continuous red laser at 800 nm, malignant cells require about half the laser energy to be photothermally destroyed than the nonmalignant cells, so both efficient cancer cell diagnostics and selective photothermal therapy are realized at the same time.
Abstract: Due to strong electric fields at the surface, the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by noble metal nanoparticles are strongly enhanced. These unique properties provide the potential of designing novel optically active reagents for simultaneous molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. It is desirable to use agents that are active in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the radiation spectrum to minimize the light extinction by intrinsic chromophores in native tissue. Gold nanorods with suitable aspect ratios (length divided by width) can absorb and scatter strongly in the NIR region (650−900 nm). In the present work, we provide an in vitro demonstration of gold nanorods as novel contrast agents for both molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Nanorods are synthesized and conjugated to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies and incubated in cell cultures with a nonmalignant epithelial cell line (HaCat) and two malignant oral epithelial ...

4,712 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The various aspects associated with the design of microalgae production units are described, giving an overview of the current state of development of algae cultivation systems (photo-bioreactors and open ponds).
Abstract: Sustainable production of renewable energy is being hotly debated globally since it is increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, primarily produced from food crops and mostly oil seeds are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-food feedstocks such as microalgae, which potentially offer greatest opportunities in the longer term. This paper reviews the current status of microalgae use for biodiesel production, including their cultivation, harvesting, and processing. The microalgae species most used for biodiesel production are presented and their main advantages described in comparison with other available biodiesel feedstocks. The various aspects associated with the design of microalgae production units are described, giving an overview of the current state of development of algae cultivation systems (photo-bioreactors and open ponds). Other potential applications and products from microalgae are also presented such as for biological sequestration of CO 2 , wastewater treatment, in human health, as food additive, and for aquaculture.

4,597 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Liam Brennan1, Philip Owende1, Philip Owende2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Sustainability is a key principle in natural resource management, and it involves operational efficiency, minimisation of environmental impact and socio-economic considerations; all of which are interdependent. It has become increasingly obvious that continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is unsustainable, owing to both depleting world reserves and the green house gas emissions associated with their use. Therefore, there are vigorous research initiatives aimed at developing alternative renewable and potentially carbon neutral solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as alternative energy resources. However, alternate energy resources akin to first generation biofuels derived from terrestrial crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, maize and rapeseed place an enormous strain on world food markets, contribute to water shortages and precipitate the destruction of the world's forests. Second generation biofuels derived from lignocellulosic agriculture and forest residues and from non-food crop feedstocks address some of the above problems; however there is concern over competing land use or required land use changes. Therefore, based on current knowledge and technology projections, third generation biofuels specifically derived from microalgae are considered to be a technically viable alternative energy resource that is devoid of the major drawbacks associated with first and second generation biofuels. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms with simple growing requirements (light, sugars, CO 2 , N, P, and K) that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and valuable co-products. This study reviewed the technologies underpinning microalgae-to-biofuels systems, focusing on the biomass production, harvesting, conversion technologies, and the extraction of useful co-products. It also reviewed the synergistic coupling of microalgae propagation with carbon sequestration and wastewater treatment potential for mitigation of environmental impacts associated with energy conversion and utilisation. It was found that, whereas there are outstanding issues related to photosynthetic efficiencies and biomass output, microalgae-derived biofuels could progressively substitute a significant proportion of the fossil fuels required to meet the growing energy demand.

3,930 citations


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