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Journal ArticleDOI

Microbiological Effects of Consuming a Synbiotic Containing Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Oligofructose in Elderly Persons, Determined by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and Counting of Viable Bacteria

01 Jan 2005-Clinical Infectious Diseases (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 40, Iss: 1, pp 28-37

TL;DR: Synbiotic consumption increased the size and diversity of protective fecal bifidobacterial populations, which are often very much reduced in older people.

AbstractBackground Because of changes in gut physiology, immune system reactivity, and diet, elderly people are more susceptible to gastrointestinal infections than are younger adults. The gut microflora, which provides a natural defense against invading microorganisms, changes in elderly people with the development of potentially damaging bacterial populations, which may lead to alterations in bacterial metabolism and higher levels of infection. Methods A randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding trial was done with 18 healthy elderly volunteers (age, >62 years) using a synbiotic comprising Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-02 and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-01 (probiotics) together with an inulin-based prebiotic (Synergy 1; Orafti). Real-time PCR was employed to quantitate total bifidobacteria, B. bifidum, and B. lactis in fecal DNA before, during, and after synbiotic consumption. Counting all viable anaerobes, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli and identification of bacterial isolates to species level was also done. Results Throughout feeding, both bifidobacteria species were detected in fecal samples obtained from all subjects receiving the synbiotic, with significant increases in the number of copies of the 16S rRNA genes of B. bifidum, B. lactis, and total bifidobacteria, compared with the control week and the placebo group. At least 1 of these species remained detectable in fecal samples 3 weeks after feeding in individuals that had no fecal B. bifidum and/or B. lactis in the control week, indicating that the probiotics persisted in the volunteers. Counting of viable organisms showed significantly higher total numbers of fecal bifidobacteria, total numbers of lactobacilli, and numbers of B. bifidum during synbiotic feeding. Conclusion Synbiotic consumption increased the size and diversity of protective fecal bifidobacterial populations, which are often very much reduced in older people.

Topics: Bifidobacterium bifidum (67%), Bifidobacterium (60%), Bifidobacterium animalis (54%), Probiotic (52%), Synbiotics (52%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ciprofloxacin treatment influenced the abundance of about a third of the bacterial taxa in the gut, decreasing the taxonomic richness, diversity, and evenness of the community, and support the hypothesis of functional redundancy in the human gut microbiota.
Abstract: The human intestinal microbiota is essential to the health of the host and plays a role in nutrition, development, metabolism, pathogen resistance, and regulation of immune responses. Antibiotics may disrupt these coevolved interactions, leading to acute or chronic disease in some individuals. Our understanding of antibiotic-associated disturbance of the microbiota has been limited by the poor sensitivity, inadequate resolution, and significant cost of current research methods. The use of pyrosequencing technology to generate large numbers of 16S rDNA sequence tags circumvents these limitations and has been shown to reveal previously unexplored aspects of the “rare biosphere.” We investigated the distal gut bacterial communities of three healthy humans before and after treatment with ciprofloxacin, obtaining more than 7,000 full-length rRNA sequences and over 900,000 pyrosequencing reads from two hypervariable regions of the rRNA gene. A companion paper in PLoS Genetics (see Huse et al., doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000255) shows that the taxonomic information obtained with these methods is concordant. Pyrosequencing of the V6 and V3 variable regions identified 3,300–5,700 taxa that collectively accounted for over 99% of the variable region sequence tags that could be obtained from these samples. Ciprofloxacin treatment influenced the abundance of about a third of the bacterial taxa in the gut, decreasing the taxonomic richness, diversity, and evenness of the community. However, the magnitude of this effect varied among individuals, and some taxa showed interindividual variation in the response to ciprofloxacin. While differences of community composition between individuals were the largest source of variability between samples, we found that two unrelated individuals shared a surprising degree of community similarity. In all three individuals, the taxonomic composition of the community closely resembled its pretreatment state by 4 weeks after the end of treatment, but several taxa failed to recover within 6 months. These pervasive effects of ciprofloxacin on community composition contrast with the reports by participants of normal intestinal function and with prior assumptions of only modest effects of ciprofloxacin on the intestinal microbiota. These observations support the hypothesis of functional redundancy in the human gut microbiota. The rapid return to the pretreatment community composition is indicative of factors promoting community resilience, the nature of which deserves future investigation.

2,008 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The impact of dietary carbohydrates, including prebiotics, on human health requires understanding of the complex relationship between diet composition, the gut microbiota and metabolic outputs.
Abstract: Bacteria that colonize the mammalian intestine collectively possess a far larger repertoire of degradative enzymes and metabolic capabilities than their hosts. Microbial fermentation of complex non...

1,125 citations


Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated—as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii—with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported.

715 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Most studies involving prebiotic oligosaccharides have been carried out using inulin and its fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) derivatives, together with various forms of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS). Although many intestinal bacteria are able to grow on these carbohydrates, most investigations have demonstrated that the growth of bifidobacteria, and to a lesser degree lactobacilli, is particularly favoured. Because of their safety, stability, organoleptic properties, resistance to digestion in the upper bowel and fermentability in the colon, as well as their abilities to promote the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, these prebiotics are being increasingly incorporated into the Western diet. Inulin-derived oligosaccharides and GOS are mildly laxative, but can result in flatulence and osmotic diarrhoea if taken in large amounts. However, their effects on large bowel habit are relatively minor. Although the literature dealing with the health significance of prebiotics is not as extensive as that concerning probiotics, considerable evidence has accrued showing that consumption of GOS and FOS can have significant health benefits, particularly in relation to their putative anti-cancer properties, influence on mineral absorption, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammatory and other immune effects such as atopic disease. In many instances, prebiotics seem to be more effective when used as part of a synbiotic combination.

683 citations


Cites background from "Microbiological Effects of Consumin..."

  • ...Synbiotic use (Bif. lactis, Bif. bifidum, Synergy 1, 2 · 6 g day–1 for 4 weeks) in nine healthy elderly volunteers (mean age 73) years resulted in strong bifidogenic effects (Bartosch et al. 2005)....

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  • ...For example, a number of investigations have shown that colonic bifidobacterial populations decline in older people, while there are increased numbers of potentially harmful clostridia and enterobacteria (Gavini et al. 2001; Hopkins et al. 2001; Bartosch et al. 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that two distinct mechanisms of metabolic cross- feeding between B. adolescentis and butyrate-forming bacteria may operate in gut ecosystems, one due to consumption of fermentation end products (lactate and acetate) and the other due to cross-feeding of partial breakdown products from complex substrates.
Abstract: Dietary carbohydrates have the potential to influence diverse functional groups of bacteria within the human large intestine. Of 12 Bifidobacterium strains of human gut origin from seven species tested, four grew in pure culture on starch and nine on fructo-oligosaccharides. The potential for metabolic cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing Firmicute bacteria related to Eubacterium hallii and Anaerostipes caccae was investigated in vitro. E. hallii L2-7 and A. caccae L1-92 failed to grow on starch in pure culture, but in coculture with B. adolescentis L2-32 butyrate was formed, indicating cross-feeding of metabolites to the lactate utilizers. Studies with [13C]lactate confirmed carbon flow from lactate, via acetyl coenzyme A, to butyrate both in pure cultures of E. hallii and in cocultures with B. adolescentis. Similar results were obtained in cocultures involving B. adolescentis DSM 20083 with fructo-oligosaccharides as the substrate. Butyrate formation was also stimulated, however, in cocultures of B. adolescentis L2-32 grown on starch or fructo-oligosaccharides with Roseburia sp. strain A2-183, which produces butyrate but does not utilize lactate. This is probably a consequence of the release by B. adolescentis of oligosaccharides that are available to Roseburia sp. strain A2-183. We conclude that two distinct mechanisms of metabolic cross-feeding between B. adolescentis and butyrate-forming bacteria may operate in gut ecosystems, one due to consumption of fermentation end products (lactate and acetate) and the other due to cross-feeding of partial breakdown products from complex substrates.

603 citations


Cites background from "Microbiological Effects of Consumin..."

  • ...The effects of resistant starch and FOS on microbial metabolism and bacterial populations have been studied in humans and in animal models (4, 16, 17, 29), and several studies have reported the...

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By combining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonic foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients.
Abstract: Because the human gut microbiota can play a major role in host health, there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the gut flora towards a potentially more remedial community. Attempts have been made to increase bacterial groups such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus that are perceived as exerting health-promoting properties. Probiotics, defined as microbial food supplements that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, have been used to change the composition of colonic microbiota. However, such changes may be transient, and the implantation of exogenous bacteria therefore becomes limited. In contrast, prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacterial species already resident in the colon, and thus attempt to improve host health. Intake of prebiotics can significantly modulate the colonic microbiota by increasing the number of specific bacteria and thus changing the composition of the microbiota. Nondigestible oligosaccharides in general, and fructooligosaccharides in particular, are prebiotics. They have been shown to stimulate the growth of endogenous bifidobacteria, which, after a short feeding period, become predominant in human feces. Moreover, these prebiotics modulate lipid metabolism, most likely via fermentation products. By combining the rationale of pro- and prebiotics, the concept of synbiotics is proposed to characterize some colonic foods with interesting nutritional properties that make these compounds candidates for classification as health-enhancing functional food ingredients.

6,687 citations


"Microbiological Effects of Consumin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Inulin-type fructans are commonly used prebiotics, which have been defined as nondigestible dietary components that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activities of bacteria in the large bowel [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: There is good evidence that the complex microbial flora present in the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals is effective in providing resistance to disease. However, the composition of this protective flora can be altered by dietary and environmental influences, making the host animal susceptible to disease and/or reducing its efficiency of food utilization. What we are doing with the probiotic treatments is re-establishing the natural condition which exists in the wild animal but which has been disrupted by modern trends in conditions used for rearing young animals, including human babies, and in modern approaches to nutrition and disease therapy. These are all areas where the gut flora can be altered for the worse and where, by the administration of probiotics, the natural balance of the gut microflora can be restored and the animal returned to its normal nutrition, growth and health status.

4,055 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: These are all areas where the gut flora can be altered for the worse and where, by the administration of probiotics, the natural balance of the gut microflora can be restored and the animal returned to its normal nutrition, growth and health status.
Abstract: There is good evidence that the complex microbial flora present in the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals is effective in providing resistance to disease. However, the composition of this protective flora can be altered by dietary and environmental influences, making the host animal susceptible to disease and/or reducing its efficiency of food utilization. What we are doing with the probiotic treatments is re-establishing the natural condition which exists in the wild animal but which has been disrupted by modern trends in conditions used for rearing young animals, including human babies, and in modern approaches to nutrition and disease therapy. These are all areas where the gut flora can be altered for the worse and where, by the administration of probiotics, the natural balance of the gut microflora can be restored and the animal returned to its normal nutrition, growth and health status.

3,276 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work has created a phylogenetically arranged report on rRNA gene copy number for a diverse collection of prokaryotic microorganisms in an attempt to understand the evolutionary implications of rRNA operon redundancy.
Abstract: The Ribosomal RNA Operon Copy Number Database (rrndb) is an Internet-accessible database containing annotated information on rRNA operon copy number among prokaryotes. Gene redundancy is uncommon in prokaryotic genomes, yet the rRNA genes can vary from one to as many as 15 copies. Despite the widespread use of 16S rRNA gene sequences for identification of prokaryotes, information on the number and sequence of individual rRNA genes in a genome is not readily accessible. In an attempt to understand the evolutionary implications of rRNA operon redundancy, we have created a phylogenetically arranged report on rRNA gene copy number for a diverse collection of prokaryotic microorganisms. Each entry (organism) in the rrndb contains detailed information linked directly to external websites including the Ribosomal Database Project, GenBank, PubMed and several culture collections. Data contained in the rrndb will be valuable to researchers investigating microbial ecology and evolution using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The rrndb web site is directly accessible on the WWW at http://rrndb.cme.msu.edu.

999 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...The aim of this double-blind, randomized, controlled feeding trial was to study the effects of ingestion of a synbiotic containing 2 bifidobacterial species (Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-02 and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-01) and oligofructose on the composition of intestinal bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus populations in older people....

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  • ...Another reason why rRNA gene copy numbers were higher than cell numbers is that rRNA operons vary widely in bacteria, and between 2 to 5 rRNA operons have been found in different species belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium [34]....

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  • ...A randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding trial was done with 18 healthy elderly volunteers (age, 162 years) using a synbiotic comprising Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-02 and Bifidobacterium lactis BL-01 (probiotics) together with an inulin-based prebiotic (Synergy 1; Orafti)....

    [...]

  • ...With use of primers specific for the genus Bifidobacterium, significantly higher copy numbers of target DNA were found in the synbiotic group during the feeding period (weeks 4 and 5) and during the postfeeding period (weeks 6 and 8) (table 4)....

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  • ...Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, and Bi- Synbiotic Feeding Study • CID 2005:40 (1 January) • 33 fidobacterium dentium predominated (table 2); Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium pullorum were occasionally found; and Bifidobacterium boum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum were detected in only a few stool samples....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Since the total culturable counts were only a fraction of the total microscopic counts, the contribution of bifidobacteria to the total intestinal microflora was overestimated by almost 10-fold when cultural methods were used as the sole method for enumeration.
Abstract: Three 16S rRNA hybridization probes were developed and tested for genus-specific detection of Bifidobacterium species in the human fecal flora. Variable regions V2, V4, and V8 of the 16S rRNA contained sequences unique to this genus and proved applicable as target sites for oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Determination of the genus specificity of the oligonucleotides was performed by whole-cell hybridization with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled probes. To this end, cells were fixed on glass slides, hybridized with the probes, and monitored by videomicroscopy. In combination with image analysis, this allowed quantification of the fluorescence per cell and objective evaluation of hybridization experiments. One of the probes developed was used to determine the population of Bifidobacterium spp. in human fecal samples. A comparison was made with results obtained by cultural methods for enumeration. Since both methods gave similar population estimates, it was concluded that all bifidobacteria in feces were culturable. However, since the total culturable counts were only a fraction of the total microscopic counts, the contribution of bifidobacteria to the total intestinal microflora was overestimated by almost 10-fold when cultural methods were used as the sole method for enumeration.

960 citations


"Microbiological Effects of Consumin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Bifidobacterium genus Bif164F 5′-GGG TGG TAA TGC CGG ATG-3′ 457 59 [22] Bif601R 5′-TAA GCC ATG GAC TTT CAC ACC-3′ ....

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