Proceedings Article•

# Microcontroller based closed-loop automatic speed control of DC motor using PWM

29 Jan 2011-pp 18-21

TL;DR: In this paper, an implementation of the ATmega8L microcontroller for speed control of DC motor fed by a DC chopper has been investigated, where the chopper is driven by a high frequency PWM signal.

Abstract: The electric drive systems used in many industrial applications require higher performance, reliability, variable speed due to its ease of controllability. The speed control of DC motor is very crucial in applications where precision and protection are of essence. Purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the required speed and to drive a motor at that speed. Microcontrollers can provide easy control of DC motor. Microcontroller based speed control system consist of electronic component, microcontroller and the LCD. In this paper, implementation of the ATmega8L microcontroller for speed control of DC motor fed by a DC chopper has been investigated. The chopper is driven by a high frequency PWM signal. Controlling the PWM duty cycle is equivalent to controlling the motor terminal voltage, which in turn adjusts directly the motor speed. This work is a practical one and high feasibility according to economic point of view and accuracy. In this work, development of hardware and software of the close loop dc motor speed control system have been explained and illustrated. The desired objective is to achieve a system with the constant speed at any load condition. That means motor will run at a fixed speed instead of varying with amount of load.

##### Citations

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21 Feb 2013

TL;DR: In this paper, an innovative technique of the speed control of the separately excited DC Motor by Boost converter fed field control is being discussed, which is a feasible and high feasibility according to economic point of view and accuracy.

Abstract: In this paper, an innovative technique of the speed control of the separately excited DC Motor by Boost converter fed field control is being discussed. Purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the required speed and to drive a motor at that speed. Controlling the PWM duty cycle is equivalent to controlling the motor field winding terminal voltage, which in turn adjusts directly the motor speed. By adjusting the duty cycle of the IGBT then the output voltage is varied. This voltage is above the rated voltage. If we can apply this voltage to the field winding, the flux production is more than the normal level. Due to this, automatically speed will be decreased. By providing one variable series resistance in the output terminal of the chopper, then if it is varied means, the current flow through the field winding is limited. By this condition, the flux production is less. Now the speed will be going to increases. In this method, the field winding should be designed for above the rated voltage. This work is a feasible one and high feasibility according to economic point of view and accuracy. In this work, developmental design of hardware of a closed loop dc motor speed control system by field control with PI speed controller have been explained and illustrated.

9 citations

01 Jan 2012

TL;DR: A permanent magnet moving coil dc motor adjustable speed drive control is implemented with hardware setup and software program in Visual Basic code to interface with hardware and software medium like simulation.

Abstract: Motor control are realized with two approaches: Hardware and Software through the application of Visual Basic (VB). A permanent magnet moving coil dc motor adjustable speed drive control is implemented with hardware setup and software program in Visual Basic code. The main feature used in Hardware and Software is their peripherals (parallel port peripherals) are used to interface with hardware and software medium like simulation. We have connected the hardware with the 32 bit parallel port cable to the CPU. As we increase the load on the DC motor the voltage of the Driver circuit decreases, which leads the connected LEDs to glow showing that we have reached to the peak value of the motor RPM. The output of the given system is achieved from the GUI of the LABVIEW; the coding is done in the Visual Basic.

3 citations

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Banha University

^{1}TL;DR: A dual open loop speed control system based on two independent PWM signals of small permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors using PIC16F877A microcontroller (MCU) has been designed and implemented.

Abstract: In this paper a dual open loop speed control system based on two independent PWM signals of small permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors using PIC16F877A microcontroller (MCU) has been designed and implemented. The Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules of the MCU are configured as PWM mode and the MCU is programmed using flowcode software package to generate two PWM signals with various duty cycles at the same frequency. A dual H-bridge channel chip SN754410 is used to drive the motors. The variation of PWM duty cycles is related directly to controlling the DC motors terminal voltage which directly proportional with speed of each motor. The complete PWM control system model has been simulated using proteus design suite software package. The development of hardware and software of the dual DC motor speed control system has been explained and clarified.

3 citations

### Cites background from "Microcontroller based closed-loop a..."

...Introduction Direct current (DC) motors plays an effective role and still found in several industrial applications such as toys, disk drives, steel rolling mills, paper machines and in conjunction with power electronic devices [1]....

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TL;DR: In this article, a system is designed to bring convenience to the user to control the motor speed from anywhere by using SMS application by adjusting the duty cycle of pulse from Pulse Width Modulation technique simultaneously.

Abstract: In many industry such as paper mills, rolling mills, printing machine machine tools, excavators and cranes etc the dc motor is used for waying a product from one place to another on the conveyer belt . So due to these the speed and direction control of the dc motor is very important. purpose. Motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the required speed and to drive a motor at that speed For that purpose wireless speed and direction control of dc motor by radio frequency technique is very crucial with pulse width modulation and H-Bridge converter. The microcontroller is used to control the dc motor speed and Transistorised h-bridge converter is used for direction control. By adjusting the duty cycle of pulse from Pulse Width Modulation technique simultaneously the terminal voltage of motor is change and hence speed will be vary with terminal voltage. H-Bridge is a DC to DC converter used for direction and made by 4 transistor switch across it a diode are connected. This system is designed to bring convenience to the user to control the motor speed from anywhere by using SMS application.

20 Nov 2017

TL;DR: In this article, a mathematical model and optimization possibilities for large and small scale photovoltaic systems with accumulation were presented. But the main results of the paper were the design, configuration and realization of the hybrid energy system with subsequent optimization.

Abstract: The dissertation is an publication summary focused on the field of management processes in renewable energy systems, mathematical models and optimization possibilities for large and small scale photovoltaic systems. The articles were published in foreign impacted and reviewd journals and indexed proceedings of foreign and domestic conferences. The main results of the dissertation are the design, configuration and realization of the hybrid energy system with subsequent optimization. Using the data from the laboratory system, a mathematical model was compiled and subsequently validated in the Matlab / Simulink environment for a hybrid energy system with accumulation. The options for power production optimization with photovoltaic sources are based on both operational measurements (for commercial applications) and on the analysis of power flow controllers to optimize the energy balance (for small scale applications in private buildings).

##### References

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21 May 1993

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of three-phase transformers and their application in DC-DC Converters, including the following: 1. Power Semiconductor Diodes and Circuits 2. Power Transistors 3. Diode Rectifiers 4. Power Supplies. 5. DC Drives.

Abstract: 1. Introduction. 2. Power Semiconductor Diodes and Circuits. 3. Diode Rectifiers. 4. Power Transistors. 5. DC-DC Converters. 6. Pulse-width Modulated Inverters. 7. Thyristors. 8. Resonant Pulse Inverters. 9. Multilevel Inverters. 10. Controlled Rectifiers. 11. AC Voltage Controllers. 12. Static Switches. 13. Flexible AC Transmission Systems. 14. Power Supplies. 15. DC Drives. 16. AC Drives. 17. Gate Drive Circuits. 18. Protection of Devices and Circuits. Appendices: Three-phase Circuits, Magnetic Circuits, Switching Functions of Converters, DC Transient Analysis, Fourier Analysis, Thyristor Commutation Techniques, Data Sheets.

2,055 citations

### "Microcontroller based closed-loop a..." refers background in this paper

...Due to their ability to supply a continuously variable dc voltage, controlled rectifier and dc choppers made a revolution in modern industrial equipment and variable-speed drives [2]....

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TL;DR: It is shown that both speed and load-torque may be estimated from the current measurements for use in two proposed nonlinear controllers based on feedback linearization and input-output linearization.

Abstract: The problem of controlling a series DC motor using only current measurements is considered. It is shown that both speed and load-torque may be estimated from the current measurements. Two nonlinear feedback laws are considered based on feedback linearization and input-output linearization, respectively. Both of these control laws require knowledge of the speed and load-torque. The speed/torque estimation scheme and the control schemes are valid in the presence of magnetic saturation in the field circuit and when high-speed field-weakening is employed. By neglecting the armature inductance, the estimation is accomplished using nonlinear state-space and output-space transformations to construct an observer with linear error-dynamics whose rate of convergence may be arbitrarily specified. (Such an observer could provide reliability to existing systems in the event of a speed sensor failure.) The feedback-linearization controller involves a nontrivial state-space transformation allowing control of the full state trajectory. An input-output linearization controller with stable internal dynamics is also explicitly constructed. Finally, simulations are given to demonstrate the algorithms. >

92 citations

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01 Jan 2000

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive overview of the main components of an electric drive system, including the speed control, regenerative braking, and counter-current breaking of a series of motors.

Abstract: 1. ELEMENTS OF ELECTRIC DRIVE SYSTEMS Historical Background / Basic Components of an Electric Drive System 2. INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE DEVICES Transistors / Thyristors / Other Power Devices / Ratings of Power Electronic Devices / di/dt and dv/dt Protection 3. INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE SWITCHING CIRCUITS Single-Phase, Half-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion for Resistive Loads / Single-Phase, Full-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion for Resistive Loads / Single-Phase, Half-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion for Inductive Loads without Freewheeling Diode / Single-phase, Half-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion for Inductive Loads with Freewheeling Diode / Three-Phase, Half-Wave ac-to-dc Conversion for Resistive Loads / Three-Phase, Half-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion for Inductive Loads / Three-Phase, Full-Wave, ac-to-dc Conversion / dc-to-dc Conversion / dc-to-ac Conversion / Energy Recovery Systems / Three-Phase Energy Recovery System / Current Source Inverter 4. JOINT SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MECHANICAL LOADS Bi-Directional Electric Drives System / Four-Quadrant Electric Drives 5. SPEED-TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC MOTORS dc Motors / Induction Motors / Synchronous Motors / Damages to Electric Machines 6. SPEED CONTROL OF DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS Speed Control of Shunt or Separately Excited Motors / Speed Control of Series Motor 7. SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTORS Basic Principles of Speed Control / Speed Control Using Rotor Resistance / Rotor Voltage Injection / Slip Energy Recovery / Speed Control Using Inductance / Speed Control by Adjusting the Stator Voltage / Speed Control by Adjusting the Supply Frequency / Voltage/Frequency Control / Current Source Speed Control 8. BRAKING OF ELECTRIC MOTORS Regenerative Braking / Dynamic Braking / Counter-Current Breaking 9. BRAKING OF DC MOTORS Regenerative Braking of dc Shunt Motors / Regenerative Braking of dc Series Motors / Dynamic Braking of dc Shunt Motors / Dynamic Braking of dc Series Motors / Counter-Current Braking of dc Shunt Motors / Counter-Current Braking of dc Series Motors 10. BRAKING OF INDUCTION MOTORS Regenerative Braking / Dynamic Braking / Counter-Current Braking 11. TRANSIENT TIME OF ELECTRIC DRIVES SYSTEM Moment of Inertia / Basic Concept of Traveling Time / Gears and Belts / Traveling Time of dc Motors / Traveling Time of Induction Motors / Traveling Time of Synchronous Motors / INDEX

79 citations

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02 Jun 1993TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that both speed and load-torque can be estimated from the current measurements for use in two proposed nonlinear controllers, based on feedback linearization and input-output linearization.

Abstract: The problem of controlling a Series DC motor using only current measurements is considered. It is shown that both speed and load-torque may be estimated from the current measurements for use in two proposed nonlinear controllers. The two proposed feedback laws are based on feedback linearization and input-output linearization. Further, both the speed/torque estimation scheme and the control schemes are valid in the prescence of magnetic saturation in the field circuit and when high-speed field-weakening is employed. The estimation is accomplished by using nonlinear state-space and output-space transformations to construct an observer with linear error-dynamics whose rate of convergence may be arbitrarily specified. (Such an observer could provide reliability to existing systems in the event of a speed sensor failure.) The feedback-linearization controller involves a non-trivial state-space transformation allowing control of the full state trajectory. It is then shown that a simpler input-output linearization controller with stable internal dynamics exists and is explicitly constructed.

35 citations

### "Microcontroller based closed-loop a..." refers methods in this paper

...The motor voltage control is achieved by measuring the rectified mains voltage with the analog to-digital converter present other micro controller and adjusting the PWM signal duty cycle accordingly [5]....

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Fleming College

^{1}TL;DR: This updated edition continues to provide readers with the background needed to understand and use microcontrollers, specifically the popular Motorola 68HC11, and will prove indispensable to students of control automation and interested amateurs, as well as to experienced users of micro Controllers.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This updated edition continues to provide readers with the background needed to understand and use microcontrollers, specifically the popular Motorola 68HC11. The 68HC11 is relatively easy to work with and has most of the features essential for a complete control system. The book starts at an introductory level by explaining the applications and origins of microcontrollers. Next, a programmer's view of the device is developed. Finally, the hardware is described and the reader learns how to connect it to the outside world for control applications.
Many changes have been made to this edition:
To acknowledge the prominence of C programming, the topic is introduced earlier and the text uses C program examples throughout.
A CD-ROM containing source code, a special demo version of the THRSim11 simulator, a IC11 demo C compiler, a cross assembler, fuzzy logic tools, and assorted electronic design tools is included. Because it provides a practical way to explore programming and interfacing concepts, readers will find the simulator extremely useful.
Chapter openers now list learning objectives to help the reader pick out the important points in each chapter.
Numerous helpful appendices have been added to reinforce key topics.
This book is an excellent guide and reference, and it will prove indispensable to students of control automation and interested amateurs, as well as to experienced users of microcontrollers.
An Instructor's Manual (ISBN 0-13-033248-8) is available free of charge to instructors using the book for a course.

30 citations