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Journal ArticleDOI

Microencapsulation of conjugated linolenic acid-rich pomegranate seed oil by an emulsion method

26 Sep 2012-Food Science and Technology International (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 18, Iss: 6, pp 549-558
TL;DR: On subjecting the microcapsules at 110 °C for specific time periods, it was observed that sodium alginate micro Capsules retained their original properties, which can be said to be more heat resistant than trehalosemicrocapsules.
Abstract: Controlled release of food ingredients and their protection from oxidation are the key functionality provided by microencapsulation. In the present study, pomegranate seed oil, rich in conjugated linolenic acid, was microencapsulated. As encapsulating agent, sodium alginate or trehalose was used. Calcium caseinate was used as the emulsifier. Performances of the two encapsulants were compared in respect of the rate of release of core material from the microcapsules and stability of microcapsules against harsh conditions. Microencapsulation was carried out by preparation of an emulsion containing calcium caseinate as the emulsion stabilizer and a water-soluble carbohydrate (either sodium alginate or trehalose) as the encapsulant. An oil-in-water emulsion was prepared with pomegranate seed oil as the inner core material. The emulsion was thereby freeze-dried and the dried product pulverized. External morphology of the microcapsules was studied under scanning electron microscope. Micrographs showed that both types of microcapsules had uneven surface morphology. Release rate of the microcapsules was studied using UV-spectrophotometer. Trehalose-based microcapsules showed higher release rate. On subjecting the microcapsules at 110 � C for specific time periods, it was observed that sodium alginate microcapsules retained their original properties. Hence, we can say that sodium alginate microcapsules are more heat resistant than trehalose microcapsules.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effect of gum arabic on the encapsulation rate, particle size and release rate of TEO microcapsules, and the optimal condition was found to be TEO':GA by 1':'3 (w/w) ratio.
Abstract: Thyme essential oils (TEO) exhibit antimicrobial activities against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Microcapsulation technology can be used to improve the stability, water solubility and antibacterial performance of TEO. In this paper, TEO was selected as the core material, and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was the wall material for microcapsulation; gum arabic (GA) was used as an emulsifier to prepare microcapsules by coprecipitation. The effects of gum arabic on the encapsulation rate, particle size and release rate of microcapsules were investigated. The optimal condition was found to be TEO : GA by 1 : 3 (w/w) ratio. In this condition, the embedding rate, release rate, and average size of the microcapsules were 87.61%, 53.00%, and 8.20 μm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that, under the action of gum arabic, the surface of microcapsules was more complete, and the size apparently decreased. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that there was no significant chemical interaction between gum arabic and β-CD. Gum arabic acted only as an emulsifier and remained in the mixed solution. For microcapsules with gum arabic as an emulsifier, the cumulative release rate of essential oils were slower at the initial time compared to microcapsules without added gum arabic. Antimicrobial activity assay exhibited TEO, which showed an inhibitory effect against Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., and the inhibitory effect was especially strong against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. Finally, the obtained microcapsules showed the same antibacterial effect.

48 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, pomegranate peels and seeds are extracted with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) using a Box-Behnken design and then optimal extracts encapsulated by spray-drying applying a 22 central composite design.
Abstract: Pomegranate peels and seeds are industrial residues considered interesting sources of punicalagin (PU) and punicic acid (PA), respectively. To optimise their extraction process and protect them against environmental factors, pomegranate residues were extracted with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) using a Box–Behnken design and then optimal extracts encapsulated by spray-drying applying a 22 central composite design. Peel extracts showed a PU content of 0.4–9.5% with optimal extraction conditions of 400 bar, 43 °C and 20% ethanol. On the other hand, SC-CO2 seed extracts showed a PA content of 65.1–78.4% with 450 bar, 48 °C and 10% ethanol as optimal extraction parameters. Otherwise, the encapsulation efficiency of SC-CO2 extracts was significantly affected by core/wall material ratio and its quadratic effect. This parameter ranged from 35.1% to 72.4% for peel extracts and from 68.2% to 92.7% for seed extracts. Results showed that the proposed technologies are a feasible approach to the integral utilisation of residues from the pomegranate industry.

38 citations


Cites methods from "Microencapsulation of conjugated li..."

  • ...…cross-linking of zein with citric acid (Tavakolipour et al., 2015); by emulsion method with sodium alginate and trehalose as encapsulating agents (Gupta et al., 2012) and by spray-drying using maltodextrin, skim milk powder and gum Arabic (Goula & Lazarides, 2015); with skimmed milk powder…...

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  • ..., 2015); by emulsion method with sodium alginate and trehalose as encapsulating agents (Gupta et al., 2012) and by spray-drying using maltodextrin, skim milk powder and gum Arabic (Goula & Lazarides, 2015); with skimmed milk powder (Goula & Adamopoulos, 2012); and with starch derivatives/ whey proteins blends as wall materials (Sahin-Nadeem & Afs in € Ozen, 2014)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the properties and oxidative stability of Pomegranate seed oil microcapsules fabricated with Arabic gum and xanthan gum and enriched by pomegranates.
Abstract: Spray drying of emulsions is one of the most commonly used techniques for drying and microencapsulation of lipophilic compounds in food industry. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO), containing high conjugated linolenic acid, has nutritional value and many functional properties while it is sensitive to oxidative degradation because of its high amount of unsaturated fatty acid. Moreover, pomegranate juice (PJ), including natural antioxidants, is one of the most valuable beverages that can be used in wall material to increase oxidative stability during spray drying. The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties and oxidative stability of PSO microcapsules fabricated with Arabic gum and xanthan gum and enriched by PJ. Pomegranate juice (Bx 11%) at different contents (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) was applied in wall material solution before spray drying and then the encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, total phenolic content, density, colorimetry, and thermal analysis of microcapsules were performed. The results showed that the use of pomegranate juice in wall composition increased microencapsulation efficiency as the highest value for the treatment containing 100% pomegranate juice was 96%. The surface morphology of the microcapsules was perfectly smooth and without cracking and the highest amount of total phenolic compounds was found in 100% pomegranate juice sample. Finally, the powder was kept at 25 and 60 °C for 30 days and peroxide value of the oil, compared to bulk oil, was measured at specific time intervals. The finding revealed that encapsulation with pomegranate juice was successful in improving the oxidative stability of pomegranate seed oil.

32 citations


Cites methods from "Microencapsulation of conjugated li..."

  • ...Encapsulation efficiency (EE) was calculated by the method described by Gupta et al. (2012), with some modifications....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of different product formulation on the properties of pomegranate seeds oil (PSO) microcapsules during spray drying encapsulation was studied. And the optimal product formula which simultaneously maximizes the product yield and micro-encapsulation efficiency was predicted as 75.5% after 5 days of storage at 60°C.
Abstract: Effect of different product formulation on the properties of resulting pomegranate seeds oil (PSO) microcapsules during spray drying encapsulation was studied. PSO microencapsulation was optimized using Box–Behnken's response surface methodology. Emulsion droplet size (3.01–9.21 µm) and viscosity (16–34 cP), product yield (50–76%), microencapsulation efficiency (76–88%), moisture (2.3–3.5 g/100 g dry matter), water activity (0.17–0.22), bulk density (262–522 kg/m3), hygroscopicity (14–23%), solubility (>97%), particle size (11.30–36.27 µm), and microstructure were analyzed. Three saturated and six unsaturated fatty acids were identified in the PSO; punicic acid was predominant in both unprocessed and microencapsulated ones. The ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was stable during processing, however, distribution of fatty acids – especially C18:3 isomers – changed by microencapsulation. Optimum product formula which simultaneously maximized the product yield and microencapsulation efficiency was predicted as 75.5 g/100 g emulsion dry matter (EDM) of maltodextrin/modified starch N-LOK (70/30), 24.5 g/100 g EDM of whey protein concentrate, and 15 g oil/100 g EDM. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of the encapsulated PSO were within acceptable range after spray drying. However, the oxidative stability decreased at high temperature (60°C) after 5 days of storage. The fatty acids composition of the unprocessed and microencapsulated PSO was same. The encapsulated PSO produced with the optimum product formula had a POV 30) after 5th day of storage at 60°C.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of different homogenization methods on physicochemical properties and storage stability of encapsulated wheat germ oil were investigated, which is a rich source of α-tocopherol is susceptible to oxidation.

15 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, β-carotene was encapsulated in 25 Dextrose Equivalent maltodextrin by three drying processes (spray, freeze and drum) Stability was studied at 11% and 32% RH and 25°C, 35°C and 45°C No significant influence of %RH was observed on the retention of β-Carotene Oxidation followed first-order kinetics with an initial fast first order reaction followed by a second much slower firstorder reaction period Although drum-drying caused more initial loss in drying, the lower surface car
Abstract: Pure β-carotene was encapsulated in 25 Dextrose Equivalent maltodextrin by three drying processes (spray, freeze and drum) Stability was studied at 11% and 32% RH and 25°C, 35°C and 45°C No significant influence of %RH was observed on the retention of β-carotene Oxidation followed first order kinetics with an initial fast first order reaction followed by a second much slower first order reaction period Although drum-drying caused more initial loss in drying, the lower surface carotenoids and larger particle size resulted in greater stability as compared to the other methods The chromametric measurements of “L” and “a” corresponded to the other kinetics and indicated that the first period rapid loss corresponded to the oxidation of surface carotenoids

459 citations


"Microencapsulation of conjugated li..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, comparing freeze-drying with hot-air drying showed that freezedried samples were more resistant to oxidation even though they showed lower microencapsulation efficiency (Desobry et al., 1997)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1996-Lipids
TL;DR: In this paper, an improved rapid procedure to determine the fatty acid composition of glycerolipids is described, which includes KOH-catalyzed transesterification and high-speed gas chromatography.
Abstract: An improved rapid procedure to determine the fatty acid composition of glycerolipids is described. The procedure includes KOH-catalyzed transesterification and high-speed gas chromatography. Glycerolipids (20-40 mg) were mixed with 2 mL of hexane and 0.2 mL of 2 M methanolic KOH at room temperature for 1-2 min. The fatty acid methyl esters in the hexane layer were analyzed by gas chromatography on 10% SP-2340 at 240 degrees C. Methyl linolenate and docosahexaenoate eluted within 2 and 5 min, respectively. Analysis was thus completed within 5 min for common vegetable oils and 8 min for fish oils.

358 citations


"Microencapsulation of conjugated li..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...…acid composition of the experimental oil was determined by gas chromatography (GC) (AGILENT; Model: 6890N; FID detector; DB Wax column) after preparing the methyl esters of the composite fatty acids using the method of transesterification of the total lipid described by Ichihara et al. (1996)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the coacervation between soybean protein isolate (SPI) and gum Arabic (GA) for sweet orange oil microencapsulation as functions of pH, ionic strength, SPI/GA ratio, core material load and micromolecules was investigated.

332 citations


"Microencapsulation of conjugated li..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As high as 78% microencapsulation efficiency was achieved by Jun-Xia et al. (2010) when they microencapsulated sweet orange oil with soybean protein isolate and gum arabic using co-acervation technique....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an ultrasonic atomizer and three processing steps are used for emulsion preparation: emulsification, atomization, and freeze drying, and the size and stability of the emulsion droplet and the properties of the encapsulated powders after freeze drying were characterized.
Abstract: An encapsulation technique was developed using an ultrasonic atomizer and three processing steps: emulsification, ultrasonic atomization, and freeze drying. Emulsion preparation variables such as concentration of wall materials [chitosan (CS), maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein isolate (WPI)] and tuna oil were optimized. The size and stability of the emulsion droplet and the properties of the encapsulated powders after freeze drying were characterized. At 20 g/100 g tuna oil, the optimum ratios of CS to MD and of CS to WPI were 1:10 and 1:1, respectively. There was a significant difference (P

265 citations


"Microencapsulation of conjugated li..." refers background in this paper

  • ...However, Klaypradit and Huang (2008) offered an interesting alternative for the encapsulation of o-3rich fish oils and suggested the use of a novel ultrasonic technique to generate impressive results....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is the first study performed with synthesized standards of relevant resveratrol conjugate standards, and the lack of effect on the chemopreventive parameters is probably due to the formation of various resveratsol conjugates reducing its bioavailability in the rat.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the implications of selected chemopreventive parameters and metabolic conversion of resveratrol in vivo In two 8-week long feeding experiments with rats, a low-resveratrol diet containing 50 mg resveratrol per kg body weight (bw) and day and a high-resveratrol diet with 300 mg per kg bw and day were administered For chemopreventive evaluation selected phase I and phase II enzymes of the biotransformation system, the total antioxidant activity, and the vitamin E status of the animals were determined The level of resveratrol and its metabolites in the feces, urine, plasma, liver, and kidneys was identified and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) using synthesized resveratrol conjugate standards Feeding of different dosages of resveratrol revealed no effect on the different chemopreventive parameters, except for the total antioxidant activity, which was elevated in plasma by 19% after feeding 50 mg resveratrol per kg bw and day The formation of trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate, trans-resveratrol-4'-sulfate, trans-resveratrol-3,5-disulfate, trans-resveratrol-3,4'-disulfate, trans-resveratrol-3,4',5-trisulfate, trans-resveratrol-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, and resveratrol aglycone was detected by HPLC analysis, depending on the biological material Total resveratrol recovery in urine and feces of rats fed on 50 mg resveratrol per kg bw and day was 15% and 13%, respectively For rats fed the higher dosage of 300 mg resveratrol per kg bw and day recovery was 54% and 17%, respectively This is the first study performed with synthesized standards of relevant resveratrol conjugates The lack of effect on the chemopreventive parameters is probably due to the formation of various resveratrol conjugates reducing its bioavailability in the rat

239 citations


"Microencapsulation of conjugated li..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Recent research has shown that the links between antioxidant activities of bioactives in vitro and their effects in vivo are extremely complex owing to unresolved issues of absorption, bioavailability and metabolite formation in blood and other tissues (Wenzel et al., 2005)....

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