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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.570623

Mismatch Repair Deficiency and Microsatellite Instability in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study of 440 Patients

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Oncology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 11, pp 570623-570623
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the status of mismatch repair (MMR) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and to examine correlations between MMR/MSI status and clinicopathological parameters. Methods: We retrospectively collected tissue samples from 440 patients with TNBC and constructed tissue microarrays. Protein expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also analyzed 195 patient samples using MSI polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Correlations between MSI status and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Results: The median age of the cohort was 49 years (range: 24–90 years) with a median follow-up period of 68 months (range: 1–170 months). All samples were positive for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, except for one sample identified as MMR-deficient (dMMR) by IHC, with loss of MSH2 and intact MSH6 expression. MSI PCR revealed no cases with high-frequency MSI (MSI-H), whereas 14 (7.2%) and 181 (92.8%) samples demonstrated low-frequency MSI and microsatellite stability, respectively. The dMMR sample harbored low-frequency instability, as revealed by MSI PCR, and a possible EPCAM deletion in the tumor, as observed from next-generation sequencing. No correlations were detected between MMR or MSI status and clinicopathological parameters, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, or survival. Conclusions: The incidence of dMMR/MSI-H is extremely low in TNBC, and rare discordant MSI PCR/MMR IHC results may be encountered. Moreover, MMR/MSI status may be of limited prognostic value. Further studies are warranted to explore other predictive immunotherapy biomarkers for TNBC.

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Topics: Microsatellite instability (62%), MSH2 (50%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9080876
23 Jul 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous, recurring cancer associated with a high rate of metastasis, poor prognosis, and lack of therapeutic targets. Although target-based therapeutic options are approved for other cancers, only limited therapeutic options are available for TNBC. Cell signaling and receptor-specific targets are reportedly effective in patients with TNBC under specific clinical conditions. However, most of these cancers are unresponsive, and there is a requirement for more effective treatment modalities. Further, there is a lack of effective biomarkers that can distinguish TNBC from other BC subtypes. ER, PR, and HER2 help identify TNBC and are widely used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to diverse therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the possible treatment options for TNBC based on its inherent subtype receptors and pathways, such as p53 signaling, AKT signaling, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage, and programmed cell death, which play essential roles at multiple stages of TNBC development. We focus on poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1, androgen receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor as well as the application of nanomedicine and immunotherapy in TNBC and discuss their potential applications in drug development for TNBC.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.INTIMP.2021.107876
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) expressions, has a poorer prognosis compared with non-TNBC breast tumors. Until recently systemic treatment for TNBC was confined to chemotherapy owing to the lack of actionable targets. Immune checkpoint molecules are expressed on malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating immune cells and can inhibit anti-cancer immune responses. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and anti-programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), induce immune responses in different types of neoplasms. They have recently gained attention for their possible role in TNBC treatment. Several clinical trials have been conducted on the role of immune checkpoint blockade in different settings for TNBC treatment. Available evidence justifies the application of ICI and chemotherapy combination in the management of metastatic TNBC and early-stage TNBC in neoadjuvant setting. This study aims to provide information on the mechanisms of action of ICIs, review the efficacy results of clinical trials using ICIs for TNBC treatment, and assess the side effects of such drugs.

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Topics: Immune checkpoint (63%), Triple-negative breast cancer (58%), Immunotherapy (54%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FBIOE.2021.680315
Yang Li1, Wenfang Miao1, Doudou He1, Siqi Wang1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Immunotherapy is a major emerging treatment for breast cancer (BC). However, not all breast cancer patients derive benefit from immunotherapy. Predictive biomarkers of immunotherapy, such as tumor mutation burden and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, are promising to stratify the patients with BC and optimize the therapeutic effect. Various targets of the immune response pathway have also been explored to expand the modalities of immunotherapy. The use of nanotechnology for the imaging of predictive biomarkers and the combination with other therapeutic modalities presents a number of advantages for the immunotherapy of BC. In this review, we summary the emerging therapeutic modalities of immunotherapy, present prominent examples of immunotherapy in BC, and discuss the future opportunity of nanotechnology in the immunotherapy of BC.

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Topics: Cancer vaccine (54%), Immunotherapy (54%), Breast cancer (50%)

1 Citations



Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.10.443377
Jie Mei1, Yun Cai1, Rui Xu1, Xinqian Yu1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
10 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known as a host cell receptor for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is identified to be dysregulated in multiple tumors. Although the characterization of abnormal ACE2 expression in malignancies has been preliminarily explored, in-depth analysis of ACE2 in breast cancer (BRCA) has not been elucidated. A systematic pan-cancer analysis was conducted to assess the expression pattern and immunological role of ACE2 based on RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Next, correlations between ACE2 expression immunological characteristics in the BRCA tumor microenvironment (TME) were evaluated. Also, the role of ACE2 in predicting the clinical features and the response to therapeutic options in BRCA was estimated. These findings were subsequently validated in another public transcriptomic cohort as well as a recruited cohort. ACE2 was lowly expressed in most cancers compared with adjacent tissues. ACE2 was positively correlated with immunomodulators, tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), cancer immunity cycles, immune checkpoints, and tumor mutation burden (TMB). Besides, high ACE2 levels indicated the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype of BRCA, lower response to endocrine therapy and higher response to chemotherapy, anti-ERBB therapy, antiangiogenic therapy and immunotherapy. To sum up, ACE2 correlates with an inflamed TME and identifies immuno-hot tumors, which may be used as an auxiliary biomarker for the identification of immunological characteristics in BRCA.

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Topics: Breast cancer (57%), Immunotherapy (51%), Tumor microenvironment (51%)

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38 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1200694
Abstract: Background Programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, a T-cell coinhibitory receptor, and one of its ligands, PD-L1, play a pivotal role in the ability of tumor cells to evade the host's immune system. Blockade of interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 enhances immune function in vitro and mediates antitumor activity in preclinical models. Methods In this multicenter phase 1 trial, we administered intravenous anti–PD-L1 antibody (at escalating doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) to patients with selected advanced cancers. Anti–PD-L1 antibody was administered every 14 days in 6-week cycles for up to 16 cycles or until the patient had a complete response or confirmed disease progression. Results As of February 24, 2012, a total of 207 patients — 75 with non–small-cell lung cancer, 55 with melanoma, 18 with colorectal cancer, 17 with renal-cell cancer, 17 with ovarian cancer, 14 with pancreatic cancer, 7 with gastric cancer, and 4 with breast cancer — had received anti–PD-L1 antibody. The media...

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Topics: Cancer (67%), Avelumab (61%), Breast cancer (58%) ... read more

5,960 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAN6733
Dung T. Le1, Dung T. Le2, Jennifer N. Durham2, Jennifer N. Durham1  +54 moreInstitutions (10)
28 Jul 2017-Science
Abstract: The genomes of cancers deficient in mismatch repair contain exceptionally high numbers of somatic mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we previously showed that colorectal cancers with mismatch repair deficiency were sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade with antibodies to programmed death receptor–1 (PD-1). We have now expanded this study to evaluate the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in patients with advanced mismatch repair–deficient cancers across 12 different tumor types. Objective radiographic responses were observed in 53% of patients, and complete responses were achieved in 21% of patients. Responses were durable, with median progression-free survival and overall survival still not reached. Functional analysis in a responding patient demonstrated rapid in vivo expansion of neoantigen-specific T cell clones that were reactive to mutant neopeptides found in the tumor. These data support the hypothesis that the large proportion of mutant neoantigens in mismatch repair–deficient cancers make them sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade, regardless of the cancers’ tissue of origin.

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Topics: Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy (57%), Immune checkpoint (55%), DNA mismatch repair (54%) ... read more

3,141 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA022289
Abstract: Background Colon cancers with high-frequency microsatellite instability have clinical and pathological features that distinguish them from microsatellite-stable tumors. We investigated the usefulness of microsatellite-instability status as a predictor of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil in stage II and stage III colon cancer. Methods Tumor specimens were collected from patients with colon cancer who were enrolled in randomized trials of fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Microsatellite instability was assessed with the use of mononucleotide and dinucleotide markers. Results Of 570 tissue specimens, 95 (16.7 percent) exhibited high-frequency microsatellite instability. Among 287 patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy, those with tumors displaying high-frequency microsatellite instability had a better five-year rate of overall survival than patients with tumors exhibiting microsatellite stability or low-frequency instability (hazard ratio for death, 0.31 [95 percent confi...

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Topics: Microsatellite instability (64%), Adjuvant therapy (60%), Colorectal cancer (56%) ... read more

1,868 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30422-9
Michael J. Overman1, Ray McDermott, Joseph Leach2, Sara Lonardi  +12 moreInstitutions (6)
01 Sep 2017-Lancet Oncology
Abstract: Summary Background Metastatic DNA mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colorectal cancer has a poor prognosis after treatment with conventional chemotherapy and exhibits high levels of tumour neoantigens, tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, and checkpoint regulators. All of these features are associated with the response to PD-1 blockade in other tumour types. Therefore, we aimed to study nivolumab, a PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, in patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods In this ongoing, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial, we enrolled adults (aged ≥18 years) with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic colorectal cancer locally assessed as dMMR/MSI-H from 31 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in eight countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and the USA). Eligible patients had progressed on or after, or been intolerant of, at least one previous line of treatment, including a fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin or irinotecan. Patients were given 3 mg/kg nivolumab every 2 weeks until disease progression, death, unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrawal from study. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). All patients who received at least one dose of study drug were included in all analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02060188. Findings Of the 74 patients who were enrolled between March 12, 2014, and March 16, 2016, 40 (54%) had received three or more previous treatments. At a median follow-up of 12·0 months (IQR 8·6–18·0), 23 (31·1%, 95% CI 20·8–42·9) of 74 patients achieved an investigator-assessed objective response and 51 (69%, 57–79) patients had disease control for 12 weeks or longer. Median duration of response was not yet reached; all responders were alive, and eight had responses lasting 12 months or longer (Kaplan-Meier 12-month estimate 86%, 95% CI 62–95). The most common grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events were increased concentrations of lipase (six [8%]) and amylase (two [3%]). 23 (31%) patients died during the study; none of these deaths were deemed to be treatment related by the investigator. Interpretation Nivolumab provided durable responses and disease control in pre-treated patients with dMMR/MSI-H metastatic colorectal cancer, and could be a new treatment option for these patients. Funding Bristol-Myers Squibb.

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Topics: Nivolumab (56%), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (56%), Colorectal cancer (50%) ... read more

1,208 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG.283
01 Jan 2009-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Lynch syndrome patients are susceptible to colorectal and endometrial cancers owing to inactivating germline mutations in mismatch repair genes, including MSH2 (ref. 1). Here we describe patients from Dutch and Chinese families with MSH2-deficient tumors carrying heterozygous germline deletions of the last exons of TACSTD1, a gene directly upstream of MSH2 encoding Ep-CAM. Due to these deletions, transcription of TACSTD1 extends into MSH2. The MSH2 promoter in cis with the deletion is methylated in Ep-CAM positive but not in Ep-CAM negative normal tissues, thus revealing a correlation between activity of the mutated TACSTD1 allele and epigenetic inactivation of the corresponding MSH2 allele. Gene silencing by transcriptional read-through of a neighboring gene in either sense, as demonstrated here, or antisense direction, could represent a general mutational mechanism. Depending on the expression pattern of the neighboring gene that lacks its normal polyadenylation signal, this may cause either generalized or mosaic patterns of epigenetic inactivation.

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Topics: Germline mutation (56%), DNA methylation (56%), Allele (56%) ... read more

650 Citations