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Journal ArticleDOI

Mitigation of domestic indoor air pollution in a pristine rural area of India

TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed mitigation strategies to reduce the pollutant concentrations in the rural households conducted in a pristine rural village of Indian Sunderban area, where 20 households which were using traditional biomass cookstove for cooking and kerosene-lamp for lighting were randomly selected.
Abstract: Purpose Different pollutants emission due to the conventional energy consumption process is of major concern owed to its significant effect on human health vis-a-vis regional climate. The purpose of this paper is to develop mitigation strategies to reduce the pollutant concentrations in the rural households conducted in a pristine rural village of Indian Sunderban area. Design/methodology/approach During winter, 2014, 20 households which were using traditional biomass cookstove for cooking and kerosene-lamp for lighting (KIT-TRD) were randomly selected. Specific type of improved forced draft biomass cookstove and solar lantern were used in ten of the selected households (KIT-IMP). Real time concentrations of particulate matter (PM) (PM2.5, PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) during day and evening time cooking period were measured in KIT-IMP and KIT-TRD. A simulation model was established to evaluate most potential factor to control the level of pollutants inside the kitchen. Findings Conventional processes of energy consumption in the households, along with the outdoor concentration of pollutants influence the indoor concentration of measured pollutants. The concentration of PM and CO was significantly lower in the KIT-IMP than the other. In the KIT-TRD households, the daytime concentration of PM and CO was significantly higher compared to the evening. The simulated output overestimated the concentration of PM10 and CO in the KIT-TRD. Originality/value The concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and CO significantly reduces in the indoor environment with the introduction of improved cookstove and solar lantern; however, further research is required to develop optimum sizes of window and door in the rural households to reduce the concentrations of different pollutants inside the kitchen.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper can provide useful information for governments for the implementation of a strategic plan focused on emphasizing multi-pollutant emission reductions and overall air pollution-related risk.
Abstract: Today, it is increasingly recognized that air pollution hurts human health. Consequently, efficient mitigation strategies need to be implemented for substantial environmental and health co-benefits. A valid approach to reducing the air pollution effects on the environment and human health is proposed. Specific guidelines have been elucidated by differentiating them on the base of the final stakeholders (citizens, enterprises, and public authorities), of the emission sources (transport, household energy, industry, and energy generation sector, agriculture, and shipping area), and of the field of implementation (urban and extra-urban context). This paper can provide useful information for governments for the implementation of a strategic plan focused on emphasizing multi-pollutant emission reductions and overall air pollution-related risk.

107 citations


Cites background from "Mitigation of domestic indoor air p..."

  • ...Accordingly, actions to reduce energy use by households and buildings are essential because of their great contribution to gas emissions (Datta et al. 2017)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarises the available information on biomass fuel use and health, highlighting the current gaps in knowledge.
Abstract: One-third of the world's population burn organic material such as wood, dung or charcoal (biomass fuel) for cooking, heating and lighting This form of energy usage is associated with high levels of indoor air pollution and an increase in the incidence of respiratory infections, including pneumonia, tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, low birthweight, cataracts, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality both in adults and children The mechanisms behind these associations are not fully understood This review summarises the available information on biomass fuel use and health, highlighting the current gaps in knowledge

677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, residential wood combustion emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and to develop chemical emissions profiles that represent the appliances and woods typically used in wood-burning communities, over 350 elements, inorganic compounds, and organic compounds were quantified.
Abstract: Residential wood combustion emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and to develop chemical emissions profiles that represent the appliances and woods typically used in wood-burning communities. Over 350 elements, inorganic compounds, and organic compounds were quantified. A range of 4−9 g/kg dry fuel of particulate matter (<2.5 μm) and 5−22 g/kg volatile organic compounds were observed. Samples were collected using a dilution stack sampler equipped with a 2.5-μm particle selective cyclone. Emissions were diluted 20−70 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 s for condensation prior to collection. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Fine particle and semivolatile organic compounds were collected on filter/PUF/XAD/PUF cartridges. Inorganic samples and mass were collected on Teflon and quartz filters. Volatile organic carbon compounds were trapped with Tenax (C8−C20), canister (C2−C12), and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine impregnated ...

585 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive organic compound source profile for smoke from burning pine, oak, and synthetic logs in residential fireplaces is presented, and it is shown that the time series of resin acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere follows the extreme seasonal variation in wood use reported in previous emissions inventories.
Abstract: Combustion of wood in residential fireplaces contributes approximately 14% on an annual average of the total primary fine particle organic carbon (OC) emissions to the Los Angeles urban atmosphere and up to 30% of the fine particulate OC emissions on winter days. This paper presents comprehensive organic compound source profiles for smoke from burning pine, oak, and synthetic logs in residential fireplaces. Mass emission rates are determined for approximately 200 organic compounds including suites of the n-alkanes, n-alkenes, cyclohexylalkanes, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, alkenoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, resin acids, hydroxylated/methyoxylated phenols, lignans, substituted benzenes/benzaldehydes, phytosterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and oxy-PAHs. Wood smoke constituents reflect to a great extent the underlying composition of the wood burned: pine and oak logs produce smoke that is enriched in lignin decomposition products, pine smoke is enriched in resin acids and their thermal alteration products, while smoke from the synthetic log burned here bears the major signature of the petroleum products combined with traces of the sawdust components from which it is made. Resin acids are discussed as potential wood smoke tracers in the environment, and it is shown that the time series of resin acids concentrations in the Los Angeles atmosphere follows the extreme seasonal variation in wood use reported in previous emissions inventories for the Los Angeles urban area.

542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review and meta-analysis of published reports of occupational epidemiologic studies providing a more secure basis for risk assessment than was previously available and limited information on total dust exposure did not suggest that dust exposure was an important confounder or modified the effect.
Abstract: Typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures are established lung carcinogens, but the quantitative exposure-response relationship is less clear. To clarify this relationship we conducted a review and meta-analysis of published reports of occupational epidemiologic studies. Thirty-nine cohorts were included. The average estimated unit relative risk (URR) at 100 Mu g/m (superscript)3(/superscript) years benzo[a]pyrene was 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.29] and was not sensitive to particular studies or analytic methods. However, the URR varied by industry. The estimated means in coke ovens, gasworks, and aluminum production works were similar (1.15-1.17). Average URRs in other industries were higher but imprecisely estimated, with those for asphalt (17.5; CI, 4.21-72.78) and chimney sweeps (16.2; CI, 1.64-160.7) significantly higher than the three above. There was no statistically significant variation of URRs within industry or in relation to study design (including whether adjusted for smoking), or source of exposure information. Limited information on total dust exposure did not suggest that dust exposure was an important confounder or modified the effect. These results provide a more secure basis for risk assessment than was previously available.

537 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings.
Abstract: Since the early 1970s, the health effects of indoor air pollution have been investigated with increasing intensity. Consequently, a large body of literature is now available on diverse aspects of indoor air pollution: sources, concentrations, health effects, engineering, and policy. This review begins with a review of the principal pollutants found in indoor environments and their sources. Subsequently, exposure to indoor air pollutants and health effects are considered, with an emphasis on those indoor air quality problems of greatest concern at present: passive exposure to tobacco smoke, nitrogen dioxide from gas-fueled cooking stoves, formaldehyde exposure, radon daughter exposure, and the diverse health problems encountered by workers in newer sealed office buildings. The review concludes by briefly addressing assessment of indoor air quality, control technology, research needs, and clinical implications.

526 citations

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