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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELREP.2021.108808

MMB-FOXM1-driven premature mitosis is required for CHK1 inhibitor sensitivity

02 Mar 2021-Cell Reports (Cell Press)-Vol. 34, Iss: 9, pp 108808-108808
Abstract: To identify genes whose loss confers resistance to CHK1 inhibitors, we perform genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screens in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines treated with the CHK1 inhibitor prexasertib (CHK1i). Five of the top six hits of the screens, MYBL2 (B-MYB), LIN54, FOXM1, cyclin A2 (CCNA2), and CDC25B, are cell-cycle-regulated genes that contribute to entry into mitosis. Knockout of MMB-FOXM1 complex components LIN54 and FOXM1 reduce CHK1i-induced DNA replication stress markers and premature mitosis during Late S phase. Activation of a feedback loop between the MMB-FOXM1 complex and CDK1 is required for CHK1i-induced premature mitosis in Late S phase and subsequent replication catastrophe, indicating that dysregulation of the S to M transition is necessary for CHK1 inhibitor sensitivity. These findings provide mechanistic insights into small molecule inhibitors currently studied in clinical trials and provide rationale for combination therapies.

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Topics: Mitosis (54%), Cyclin A2 (51%)
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2021.683688
Abstract: In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), tumors positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) represent a distinct biological entity with favorable prognosis. An enhanced radiation sensitivity of these tumors is evident in the clinic and on the cellular level when comparing HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines. We could show that the underlying mechanism is a defect in DNA double-strand break repair associated with a profound and sustained G2 arrest. This defect can be exploited by molecular targeting approaches additionally compromising the DNA damage response to further enhance their radiation sensitivity, which may offer new opportunities in the setting of future de-intensified regimes. Against this background, we tested combined targeting of PARP and the DNA damage-induced intra-S/G2 cell cycle checkpoints to achieve effective radiosensitization. Enhancing CDK1/2 activity through the Wee1 inhibitor adavosertib or a combination of Wee1 and Chk1 inhibition resulted in an abrogation of the radiation-induced G2 cell cycle arrest and induction of replication stress as assessed by γH2AX and chromatin-bound RPA levels in S phase cells. Addition of the PARP inhibitor olaparib had little influence on these endpoints, irrespective of checkpoint inhibition. Combined PARP/Wee1 targeting did not result in an enhancement in the absolute number of residual, radiation induced 53BP1 foci as markers of DNA double-strand breaks but it induced a shift in foci numbers from S/G2 to G1 phase cells. Most importantly, while sole checkpoint or PARP inhibition induced moderate radiosensitization, their combination was clearly more effective, while exerting little effect in p53/G1 arrest proficient normal human fibroblasts, thus indicating tumor specificity. We conclude that the combined inhibition of PARP and the intra-S/G2 checkpoint is a highly effective approach for the radiosensitization of HPV-positive HNSCC cells and may represent a viable alternative for the current standard of concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In vivo studies to further evaluate the translational potential are highly warranted.

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Topics: PARP inhibitor (64%), Cell cycle checkpoint (60%), G2-M DNA damage checkpoint (58%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.55070
23 Apr 2021-eLife
Abstract: The FOXM1 transcription factor is an oncoprotein and a top biomarker of poor prognosis in human cancer. Overexpression and activation of FOXM1 is frequent in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and lethal form of human ovarian cancer, and is linked to copy number gains at chromosome 12p13.33. We show that FOXM1 is co-amplified and co-expressed with RHNO1, a gene involved in the ATR-Chk1 signaling pathway that functions in the DNA replication stress response. We demonstrate that FOXM1 and RHNO1 are head-to-head (i.e., bidirectional) genes (BDG) regulated by a bidirectional promoter (BDP) (named F/R-BDP). FOXM1 and RHNO1 each promote oncogenic phenotypes in HGSC cells, including clonogenic growth, DNA homologous recombination repair, and poly-ADP ribosylase inhibitor resistance. FOXM1 and RHNO1 are one of the first examples of oncogenic BDG, and therapeutic targeting of FOXM1/RHNO1 BDG is a potential therapeutic approach for ovarian and other cancers.

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Topics: DNA repair (54%), Cancer (52%), Homologous recombination (52%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.05.28.445639
Kartika Venugopal1, Pawel Nowialis1, Yang Feng1, Daniil Shabashvili1  +27 moreInstitutions (4)
28 May 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) gene are recurrent in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with resistance to standard chemotherapy, disease relapse, and poor prognosis, especially in advanced-age patients. Previous gene expression studies in cells with DNMT3A mutations identified deregulation of cell cycle-related signatures implicated in DNA damage response and replication fork integrity, suggesting sensitivity to replication stress. Here we tested whether pharmacologically-induced replication fork stalling creates a therapeutic vulnerability in cells with DNMT3A(R882) mutations. We observed increased sensitivity to nucleoside analogs such as cytarabine in multiple cellular systems expressing mutant DNMT3A, ectopically or endogenously, in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of DNA damage signaling in response to cytarabine revealed persistent intra-S phase checkpoint activation, accompanied by accumulation of DNA damage in the DNMT3A(R882) overexpressing cells, which was only partially resolved after drug removal and carried through mitosis, resulting in micronucleation. Pulse-chase double-labeling experiments with EdU and BrdU after cytarabine wash-out demonstrated that cells with DNMT3A(mut) were able to restart replication but showed a higher rate of fork collapse. Gene expression profiling by RNA-seq identified deregulation of pathways associated with cell cycle progression and p53 activation, as well as metabolism and chromatin. Together, our studies show that cells with DNMT3A mutations have a defect in recovery from replication fork arrest and subsequent accumulation of unresolved DNA damage, which may have therapeutic tractability. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its role in epigenetic control, DNMT3A contributes to preserving genome integrity during DNA replication.

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Topics: Replication fork arrest (74%), DNA replication (62%), DNA damage (61%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13123065
Cassie Liu1, Carter J. Barger1, Adam R. Karpf1Institutions (1)
19 Jun 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a member of the conserved forkhead box (FOX) transcription factor family. Over the last two decades, FOXM1 has emerged as a multifunctional oncoprotein and a robust biomarker of poor prognosis in many human malignancies. In this review article, we address the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of regulation and oncogenic functions of FOXM1, particularly in the context of ovarian cancer. FOXM1 and its associated oncogenic transcriptional signature are enriched in >85% of ovarian cancer cases and FOXM1 expression and activity can be enhanced by a plethora of genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational mechanisms. As a master transcriptional regulator, FOXM1 promotes critical oncogenic phenotypes in ovarian cancer, including: (1) cell proliferation, (2) invasion and metastasis, (3) chemotherapy resistance, (4) cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, (5) genomic instability, and (6) altered cellular metabolism. We additionally discuss the evidence for FOXM1 as a cancer biomarker, describe the rationale for FOXM1 as a cancer therapeutic target, and provide an overview of therapeutic strategies used to target FOXM1 for cancer treatment.

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Topics: Cancer (59%), Cancer stem cell (58%), Metastasis (55%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.15252/EMBJ.2021108486
01 Jun 2021-The EMBO Journal
Abstract: USP7 inhibitors are gaining momentum as a therapeutic strategy to stabilize p53 through their ability to induce MDM2 degradation. However, these inhibitors come with an unexpected p53-independent toxicity, via an unknown mechanism. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Galarreta et al report how inhibition of USP7 leads to re-distribution of PP2A from cytoplasm to nucleus and an increase of deleterious CDK1-dependent phosphorylation throughout the cell cycle, revealing a new regulatory mechanism for the progression of S-phase cells toward mitosis to maintain genomic integrity.

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Topics: Cyclin B (56%), Cell cycle (53%), Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (52%) ... read more

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88 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13059-014-0550-8
05 Dec 2014-Genome Biology
Abstract: In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html .

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (54%), Integrator complex (51%), Count data (50%) ... read more

29,675 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0506580102
Abstract: Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.

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26,320 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTS635
01 Jan 2013-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation Accurate alignment of high-throughput RNA-seq data is a challenging and yet unsolved problem because of the non-contiguous transcript structure, relatively short read lengths and constantly increasing throughput of the sequencing technologies. Currently available RNA-seq aligners suffer from high mapping error rates, low mapping speed, read length limitation and mapping biases. Results To align our large (>80 billon reads) ENCODE Transcriptome RNA-seq dataset, we developed the Spliced Transcripts Alignment to a Reference (STAR) software based on a previously undescribed RNA-seq alignment algorithm that uses sequential maximum mappable seed search in uncompressed suffix arrays followed by seed clustering and stitching procedure. STAR outperforms other aligners by a factor of >50 in mapping speed, aligning to the human genome 550 million 2 × 76 bp paired-end reads per hour on a modest 12-core server, while at the same time improving alignment sensitivity and precision. In addition to unbiased de novo detection of canonical junctions, STAR can discover non-canonical splices and chimeric (fusion) transcripts, and is also capable of mapping full-length RNA sequences. Using Roche 454 sequencing of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplicons, we experimentally validated 1960 novel intergenic splice junctions with an 80-90% success rate, corroborating the high precision of the STAR mapping strategy. Availability and implementation STAR is implemented as a standalone C++ code. STAR is free open source software distributed under GPLv3 license and can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/rna-star/.

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Topics: MRNA Sequencing (57%)

20,172 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTU638
15 Jan 2015-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Motivation: A large choice of tools exists for many standard tasks in the analysis of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data. However, once a project deviates from standard workflows, custom scripts are needed. Results: We present HTSeq, a Python library to facilitate the rapid development of such scripts. HTSeq offers parsers for many common data formats in HTS projects, as well as classes to represent data, such as genomic coordinates, sequences, sequencing reads, alignments, gene model information and variant calls, and provides data structures that allow for querying via genomic coordinates. We also present htseq-count, a tool developed with HTSeq that preprocesses RNA-Seq data for differential expression analysis by counting the overlap of reads with genes. Availability and implementation: HTSeq is released as an opensource software under the GNU General Public Licence and available from http://www-huber.embl.de/HTSeq or from the Python Package Index at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/HTSeq. Contact: sanders@fs.tum.de

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11,833 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG1180
01 Jul 2003-Nature Genetics
Abstract: DNA microarrays can be used to identify gene expression changes characteristic of human disease. This is challenging, however, when relevant differences are subtle at the level of individual genes. We introduce an analytical strategy, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, designed to detect modest but coordinate changes in the expression of groups of functionally related genes. Using this approach, we identify a set of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation whose expression is coordinately decreased in human diabetic muscle. Expression of these genes is high at sites of insulin-mediated glucose disposal, activated by PGC-1α and correlated with total-body aerobic capacity. Our results associate this gene set with clinically important variation in human metabolism and illustrate the value of pathway relationships in the analysis of genomic profiling experiments.

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Topics: Gene expression profiling (58%), DNA microarray (54%), Gene expression (53%) ... read more

6,521 Citations


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