# Modeling of STATCOM under different loading conditions

VIT University

^{1}03 Apr 2012-pp 1-6

TL;DR: This paper deals with the study and analysis of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), mainly the modeling of STATCOM, which plays a very important role in the transmission of Electric Power.

Abstract: This paper deals with the study and analysis of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), mainly the modeling of STATCOM. Reactive Power Compensation plays a very important role in the transmission of Electric Power. A comparative study of how the reactive power is injected into the transmission system with and without STATCOM under different loading condition is also illustrated in this paper. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

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21 Jul 2013TL;DR: The Bibliography of FACTS technology for 2012-2013 as mentioned in this paper provides a listing of various journal and conference papers in this area, and includes papers published until November 2013, which is a very short time interval.

Abstract: This paper presents the Bibliography of FACTS technology for 2012–2013. It provides a listing of various journal and conference papers in this area. This Bibliography includes papers published until November 2013.

8 citations

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VIT University

^{1}TL;DR: It has been found that with the STATCOM implemented, the voltage profile of all the bus has increased nearly to 1 pu and the power factor has improved to 0.97 when compared to the other compensating devices.

Abstract: Background/Objectives: Due to the immense development in distributed generation, the entire power system network requires flexible control of power flow and increased stability. Methods/Statistical analysis : In order to achieve this as well as to improve the reliability of the network, power electronics switches are incorporated at several locations as the control of these switches are comparatively easy and accurate. Cascaded multilevel inverter based static synchronous compensator is one such device that provides better reactive power compensation, improves voltage profile as well as enhances the power factor of the system. Findings: This paper is intended to design and analyze static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) utilizing cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel inverter. The designed STATCOM has been used for the Reactive Power Compensation (RPC) and power factor improvement for the single end fed power system network modeled in Simulink. Seven levels CHB multilevel inverter has been designed for STATCOM using sine pulse width modulation (SPWM). The output of the inverter is then filtered using the pi filter to obtain nearly sinusoidal voltage profile. Single end fed power system network has been modeled in Simulink. STATCOM majorly provides reactive power and improve the power factor of the system without any further loading on it. For confirming the effectiveness of the proposed STATCOM compensation, the system has also been analyzed with shunt compensation by fixed capacitor and thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) individually and the same study has been carried out to compare them. Applications/Improvements: It has been found that with the STATCOM implemented, the voltage profile of all the bus has increased nearly to 1 pu and the power factor has improved to 0.97 when compared to the other compensating devices.

2 citations

##### References

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24 Dec 1999

TL;DR: The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)—a new technology based on power electronics—offers an opportunity to enhance controllability, stability, and power transfer capability of ac transmission systems.

4,217 citations

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TL;DR: This paper presents a comprehensive review of active filter configurations, control strategies, selection of components, other related economic and technical considerations, and their selection for specific applications.

Abstract: Active filtering of electric power has now become a mature technology for harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three phase without neutral), and four-wire (three phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads. This paper presents a comprehensive review of active filter (AF) configurations, control strategies, selection of components, other related economic and technical considerations, and their selection for specific applications. It is aimed at providing a broad perspective on the status of AF technology to researchers and application engineers dealing with power quality issues. A list of more than 200 research publications on the subject is also appended for a quick reference.

2,311 citations

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17 Apr 2002

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a graph-based approach for the construction of a bus-impedance matrix for the purpose of estimating short-circuit measurements with Bus Impedance.

Abstract: Short-Circuit Currents and Symmetrical Components Nature of Short-Circuit Currents Symmetrical Components Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Symmetrical Component Transformation Clarke Component Transformation Characteristics of Symmetrical Components Sequence Impedance of Network Components Computer Models of Sequence Networks Structure and Nature of Electrical Power Systems Power System Studies Unsymmetrical Fault Calculations Line-to-Ground Fault Line-to-Line Fault Double Line-to-Ground Fault Three-Phase Fault Phase Shift in Three-Phase Transformers Unsymmetrical Fault Calculations System Grounding Open Conductor Faults Matrix Methods for Network Solutions Network Models Bus Admittance Matrix Bus Impedance Matrix Loop Admittance and Impedance Matrices Graph Theory Bus Admittance and Impedance Matrices by Graph Approach Algorithms for Construction of Bus Impedance Matrix Short-Circuit Calculations with Bus Impedance Matrix Solution of Large Network Equations Current Interruption in AC Networks Rheostatic Breaker AC Arc Interruption Current-Zero Breaker Transient Recovery Voltage The Terminal Fault The Short-Line Fault Interruption of Low Inductive Currents Interruption of Capacitive Currents TRV in Capacitive and Inductive Circuits Prestrikes in Breakers Overvoltages on Energizing High-Voltage Lines Out-of-Phase Closing Resistance Switching Failure Modes of Circuit Breakers Operating Mechanisms-SF6 Breakers Vacuum Interruption Stresses in Circuit Breakers Application and Ratings of Circuit Breakers and Fuses according to ANSI Standards Total and Symmetrical Current Rating Basis Asymmetrical Ratings Voltage Range Factor K Circuit Breaker Timing Diagram Maximum Peak Current Permissible Tripping Delay Service Capability Duty Requirements and Reclosing Capability Capacitance Current Switching Line-Closing Switching Surge Factor Out-of-Phase Switching Current Rating Transient Recovery Voltage Generator Circuit Breakers Specifications of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Low-Voltage Circuit Breakers Fuses Short Circuit of Synchronous and Induction Machines Reactances of a Synchronous Machine Saturation of Reactances Time Constants of Synchronous Machines Synchronous Machine Behavior on Terminal Short Circuit Circuit Equations of Unit Machines Park's Transformation Park's Voltage Equation Circuit Model of Synchronous Machines Calculation Procedure and Examples Short Circuit of Synchronous Motors and Condensers Induction Motors Short-Circuit Calculations according to ANSI Standards Types of Calculations Accounting for Short-Circuit Current Decay Rotating Machines Model Types and Severity of System Short Circuits Calculation Methods Network Reduction Breaker Duty Calculations Generator Source Short-Circuit Current Asymmetry Calculation Procedure Examples of Calculations Thirty-Cycle Short-Circuit Currents Short-Circuit Calculations According to IEC Standards Conceptual and Analytical Differences Prefault Voltage Far-from-Generator Faults Near-to-Generator Faults Influence of Motors Comparison with ANSI Calculation Procedures Examples of Calculations and Comparison with ANSI Methods Calculations of Short-Circuit Currents in DC Systems DC Short-Circuit Current Sources Calculation Procedures Short Circuit of a Lead Acid Battery Short-Circuit Current of DC Motors and Generators Short-Circuit Current of a Rectifier Short Circuit of a Charged Capacitor Total Short-Circuit Current DC Circuit Breakers Load Flow over Power Transmission Lines Power in AC Circuits Power Flow in a Nodal Branch ABCD Constants Transmission Line Models Tuned Power Line Ferranti Effect Symmetrical Line at No Load Illustrative Examples Circle Diagrams Modal Analysis Corona on Transmission Lines System Variables in Load Flow Load Flow Methods: Part I Modeling a Two-Winding Transformer Load Flow-Bus Types Gauss and Gauss-Seidel Y-Matrix Methods Convergence in Jacobi-Type Methods Gauss-Seidel Z-Matrix Method Conversion of Y to Z Matrix Triangular Factorization Method of Load Flow Load Flow Methods: Part II Function with One Variable Simultaneous Equations Rectangular Form of Newton-Raphson Method of Load Flow Polar Form of Jacobian Matrix Simplifications of Newton-Raphson Method Decoupled Newton-Raphson Method Fast Decoupled Load Flow Model of a Phase-Shifting Transformer DC Load Flow Models Second Order Load Flow Load Models Induction Motor Models Impact Loads and Motor Starting Practical Load Flow Studies Reactive Power Flow and Control Voltage Instability Reactive Power Compensation Reactive Power Control Devices Some Examples of Reactive Power Flow Flexible AC Transmission Systems Three-Phase and Distribution System Load Flow Phase Coordinate Method Three-Phase Models Distribution System Load Flow Optimal Capacitor Locations Optimization Techniques Functions of One Variable Concave and Convex Functions Taylor's Theorem Lagrangian Method: Constrained Optimization Multiple Equality Constraints Optimal Load Sharing between Generators Inequality Constraints Kuhn-Tucker Theorem Search Methods Gradient Methods Linear Programming-Simplex Method Quadratic Programming Dynamic Programming Integer Programming Optimal Power Flow Optimal Power Flow Decoupling Real and Reactive OPF Solution Methods of OPF Generation Scheduling Considering Transmission Losses Steepest Gradient Method OPF Using the Newton Method Sequential Quadratic Programming Successive Linear Programming Interior Point Methods and Variants Security and Environmental Constrained OPF Harmonics Generation Harmonics and Sequence Components Increase in Nonlinear Loads Harmonic Factor Three-Phase Windings in Electrical Machines Tooth Ripples in Electrical Machines Synchronous Generators Transformers Saturation of Current Transformers Shunt Capacitors Sub-Harmonic Frequencies Static Power Converters Switch-Mode Power (SMP) Supplies Arc Furnaces Cycloconverters Thyristor-Controlled Reactor Thyristor-Switched Capacitors Pulse-Width Modulation Adjustable Speed Drives Pulse Burst Modulation Chopper Circuits and Electric Traction Slip Frequency Recovery Schemes Lighting Ballasts Voltage Source Converters Inter-Harmonics Effects of Harmonics Rotating Machines Transformers Cables Capacitors Harmonic Resonance Voltage Notching Electromagnetic Interference Overloading of Neutral Protective Relays and Meters Circuit Breakers and Fuses Telephone Influence Factor Harmonic Analysis Harmonic Analysis Methods Harmonic Modeling of System Components Load Models System Impedance Three-Phase Models Modeling of Networks Power Factor and Reactive Power Shunt Capacitor Bank Arrangements Unbalance Detection Study Cases Harmonic Mitigation and Filters Mitigation of Harmonics Band-Pass Filters Practical Filter Design Relations in an ST Filter Filters for a Furnace Installation Filters for an Industrial Distribution System Secondary Resonance Filter Reactors Double-Tuned Filter Damped Filters Design of a Second-Order High-Pass Filter Zero-Sequence Traps Limitations of Passive Filters Active Filters Corrections in Time Domain Corrections in the Frequency Domain Instantaneous Reactive Power Harmonic Mitigation AT Source Multilevel Converters Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Relating Short-Circuit Currents with Arc Flash and Personal Safety Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Hazard=Risk Categories System Grounding: Impact on Incident Energy Duration of an Arc Flash Event and Arc Flash Boundary Protective Relaying and Coordination Short-Circuit Currents Arc Flash Calculations in Medium-Voltage Systems Arc Flash Calculations in Low-Voltage Systems Accounting for Decaying Short-Circuit Currents Wind Power AEP 765 kV Transmission Grid Initiative in the United States Wind Energy Conversion The Cube Law Operation Wind Generators Power Electronics Reactive Power Control Harmonics Computer Modeling Appendix A: Matrix Methods Appendix B: Calculation of Line and Cable Constants Appendix C: Transformers and Reactors Appendix D: Sparsity and Optimal Ordering Appendix E: Fourier Analysis Appendix F: Limitation of Harmonics Appendix G: Estimating Line Harmonics

179 citations

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13 May 2003TL;DR: In this paper, an application study of a STATCOM with energy storage giving special emphasis to control strategies which minimise the use of the stored energy is reported, where the current rating of the IGBTs, diodes and connecting transformer as well as the losses associated with the switches when the compensator is operated under space-vector modulation are demonstrated.

Abstract: With advances in energy storage technology the application of STATCOMs with energy storage for utility applications, such as active- and reactive-power compensation of loads, network-voltage control and mitigation of power system disturbances, is increasingly feasible. As it is more expensive to produce active power than reactive power, it is important to consider methods which can be adopted to minimise the use of the energy store. An application study of a STATCOM with energy storage giving special emphasis to control strategies which minimise the use of the stored energy is reported. Calculation techniques to determine the current rating of the IGBTs, diodes and connecting transformer as well as the losses associated with the switches when the compensator is operated under space-vector modulation are demonstrated. Application studies of the compensator with energy storage for load compensation, steady-state voltage control, mitigation of voltage sags and elimination of power oscillations are described. The analytical studies of each of these applications are supplemented by simulation results carried out in PSCAD/EMTDC and by experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype.

119 citations

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...Some applications of STATCOM for voltage sag mitigation are presented in [6-8]....

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