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Journal ArticleDOI

Modeling of Tuning of Microresonator Filters by Perturbational Evaluation of Cavity Mode Phase Shifts

01 Dec 2007-Journal of Lightwave Technology (IEEE)-Vol. 25, Iss: 12, pp 3760-3765

AbstractMicroresonator filters, which are realized by evanescent coupling of circular cavities with two parallel bus waveguides, are promising candidates for applications in dense wavelength-division multiplexing. Tunability of these filters is an essential feature for their successful deployment. In this paper, we present a framework for modeling of tuning of the microresonators by changes in their cavity core refractive index. Using a reciprocity theorem, a perturbational expression for changes in the cavity propagation constants due to slight modifications of the cavity core refractive index is derived. This expression permits us to analytically calculate shifts in the spectral response of the 2-D resonators. Comparisons of the resultant shifts and spectra with direct simulations based on a coupled mode theory show satisfactory agreement.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The spectral characteristics of a ring resonator made of Si photonic wires are modeled using mode expansion of supermodes of the directional coupler. The influence of the coupling coefficient, loss factor and waveguide dispersion on the spectral features are analyzed in detail. The model is then compared with the experimental data of a ring resonator designed for sensing purposes. The model that includes a wavelength dependence on coupling length reproduces the large variations of the envelope of the experimental spectrum, when coupling coefficient cover its full range from 0 to 1. Fitting parameters explain the details of the experimental spectrum and contribute to the sensor optimization, as well as illustrating general guidelines for ring resonator design.

35 citations


Cites background from "Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..."

  • ...Although often mentioned in theoretical works [27], a large confusion seems to persist in the recent literature, especially for ring resonator made of high index contrast material....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ring resonators integrated with tunable couplers are useful devices in integrated optics systems. The resonant frequency shift characteristic of tunable resonators is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that the resonant frequency shift range is dependent on the configurations and tuning methods of couplers. It provides an analytical explanation of the frequency shift effect by the phase transmission method and the coupled-mode theory (CMT) of asymmetric waveguides. Optimized designs of different kinds of tunable couplers are discussed in order to improve the resonant frequency stability. Moreover, the intensity–phase relationship induced by the resonant frequency shift effect is also discussed, and a more efficient configuration of optical sensors using phase modulation is proposed.

14 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2010
Abstract: This chapter discusses an ab initio frequency domain model of circular microresonators, built on the physical notions that commonly enter the description of the resonator functioning in terms of interaction between fields in the circular cavity with the modes supported by the straight bus waveguides. Quantitative evaluation of this abstract model requires propagation constants associated with the cavity/bend segments, and scattering matrices, that represent the wave interaction in the coupler regions. These quantities are obtained by an analytical (2-D) or numerical (3-D) treatment of bent waveguides, along with spatial coupled mode theory (CMT) for the couplers. The required CMT formulation is described in detail. Also, quasi-analytical approximations for fast and accurate computation of the resonator spectra are discussed. The formalism discussed in this chapter provides valuable insight into the functioning of the resonators, and it is suitable for practical device design.

8 citations


Cites background from "Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..."

  • ...for purposes of the evaluation of fabrication tolerances, o r for predicting the effects of tuning mechanisms [8, 51]....

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References
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Proceedings Article
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In quantum optical devices, microcavities can coax atoms or quantum dots to emit spontaneous photons in a desired direction or can provide an environment where dissipative mechanisms such as spontaneous emission are overcome so that quantum entanglement of radiation and matter is possible.
Abstract: Microcavity physics and design will be reviewed. Following an overview of applications in quantum optics, communications and biosensing, recent advances in ultra-high-Q research will be presented.

2,575 citations


"Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..." refers background in this paper

  • ...H IGH Q microcavity resonators are extensively investigated for a variety of applications like lasers, sensors, the study of quantum electrodynamics, and integrated optical communication devices [1]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Microring resonators side coupled to signal waveguides provide compact, narrow band, and large free spectral range optical channel dropping filters. Higher order filters with improved passband characteristics and larger out-of-band signal rejection are realized through the coupling of multiple rings. The analysis of these devices is approached by the novel method of coupling of modes in time. The response of filters comprised of an arbitrarily large dumber of resonators may be written down by inspection, as a continued fraction. This approach simplifies both the analysis and filter synthesis aspects of these devices.

1,662 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000

1,492 citations


"Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As explained in [18] and [20], at resonance, the condition β = (2mπ + φ)/Lcav = βm holds for the cavity mode phase propagation constant β (real part of γ), where the integer m...

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Book
01 Jan 1982
Abstract: Integrated Optics explains the subject of optoelectronic devices and their use in integrated optics and fiber optic systems The approach taken is to emphasize the physics of how devices work and how they can be (and have been) used in various applications as the field of optoelectronics has progressed from microphotonics to nanophotonics Illustrations and references from technical journals have been used to demonstrate the relevance of the theory to currently important topics in industry By reading this book, scientists, engineers, students and engineering managers can obtain an overall view of the theory and the most recent technology in Integrated Optics

771 citations


"Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..." refers background in this paper

  • ...in other devices like lasers, optical switches, and optical modulators [8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theoretical shift for adsorption of a single protein is found to be extremely sensitive to the target region, with adsor adaptation in the most sensitive region varying as 1/R(5/2).
Abstract: Biosensors based on the shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres accompanying protein adsorption are described by use of a perturbation theory. For random spatial adsorption, theory predicts that the shift should be inversely proportional to micorsphere radius R and proportional to protein surface density and excess polarizability. Measurements are found to be consistent with the theory, and the correspondence enables the average surface area occupied by a single protein to be estimated. These results are consistent with crystallographic data for bovine serum albumin. The theoretical shift for adsorption of a single protein is found to be extremely sensitive to the target region, with adsorption in the most sensitive region varying as 1R 52 . Specific parameters for single protein or virus particle detection are predicted. © 2003 Optical

737 citations


"Modeling of Tuning of Microresonato..." refers background in this paper

  • ...These expressions resemble those for the frequency shifts of whispering gallery resonances of circular (uncoupled, isolated) cavities, which were obtained by energy perturbation arguments [15]....

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  • ...One can see a close formal resemblance of (10) for the change in the cavity propagation constant to the expression for the shift of WGMs in microspheres by protein adsorption given in [15]....

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