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Journal ArticleDOI

Modelling galaxy spectra in presence of interstellar dust – II. From the ultraviolet to the far-infrared

11 Aug 2006-Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 370, Iss: 3, pp 1454-1478
TL;DR: In this article, the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of different morphological types of galaxies are derived by using a simple geometrical model for each type of galaxy, based on a robust model of chemical evolution that assumes a suitable prescription for gas infall, initial mass function, star formation rate and stellar ejecta.
Abstract: In this paper, we present spectrophotometric models for galaxies of different morphological type whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) take into account the effect of dust in absorbing UV-optical light and re-emitting it in the infrared (IR). The models contain three main components: (i) the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) composed of gas and dust whose emission and extinction properties have already been studied in detail by Piovan et al. (2006), (ii) the large complexes of molecular clouds (MCs) in which new stars are formed and (iii) the stars of any age and chemical composition. The galaxy models stand on a robust model of chemical evolution that assuming a suitable prescription for gas infall, initial mass function, star formation rate and stellar ejecta provides the total amounts of gas and stars present at any age together with their chemical history. The chemical models are taylored in such a way to match the gross properties of galaxies of different morphological type. In order to describe the interaction between stars and ISM in building up the total SED of a galaxy, one has to know the spatial distribution of gas and stars. This is made adopting a simple geometrical model for each type of galaxy. The total gas and star mass provided by the chemical model are distributed over the whole volume by means of suitable density profiles, one for each component and depending on the galaxy type (spheroidal, disk and disk plus bulge). The galaxy is then split in suitable volume elements to each of which the appropriate amounts of stars, MCs and ISM are assigned. Each elemental volume bin is at the same time source of radiation from the stars inside and absorber and emitter of radiation from and to all other volume bins and the ISM in between. They are the elemental seeds to calculate the total SED. Using the results for the properties of the ISM and the Single Stellar Populations (SSPs) presented by Piovan et al. (2006) we derive the SEDs of galaxies of different morphological type. First the technical details of the method are described and the basic relations driving the interaction between the physical components of the galaxy are presented. Second, the main parameters are examined and their effects on the SED of three prototype galaxies (a disk, an elliptical and a starburster) are highlighted. The final part of the paper is devoted to assess the ability of our galaxy models in reproducing the SEDs of a few real galaxies of the Local Universe.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The GALEV (Galev Evolutionary Evolutionary Models for Galaxies) model as mentioned in this paper describes the evolution of stellar populations in general, of star clusters as well as of galaxies, both in terms of resolved stellar populations and of integrated light properties over cosmological time-scales of ≥13 Gyr.
Abstract: GALEV (GALaxy EVolution) evolutionary synthesis models describe the evolution of stellar populations in general, of star clusters as well as of galaxies, both in terms of resolved stellar populations and of integrated light properties over cosmological time-scales of ≥13 Gyr from the onset of star formation shortly after the big bang until today. For galaxies, GALEV includes a simultaneous treatment of the chemical evolution of the gas and the spectral evolution of the stellar content, allowing for what we call a chemically consistent treatment: we use input physics (stellar evolutionary tracks, stellar yields and model atmospheres) for a large range of metallicities and consistently account for the increasing initial abundances of successive stellar generations. Here we present the latest version of the GALEV evolutionary synthesis models that are now interactively available at http://www.galev.org. We review the currently used input physics, and also give details on how this physics is implemented in practice. We explain how to use the interactive web interface to generate models for user-defined parameters and also give a range of applications that can be studied using GALEV, ranging from star clusters, undisturbed galaxies of various types E–Sd to starburst and dwarf galaxies, both in the local and the high-redshift Universe.

288 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the stellar spectral synthesis code Starburst99, the nebular modeling code MAPPINGS III and a one-dimensional dynamical evolution model of H II regions around massive clusters of young stars were combined to generate improved models of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies.
Abstract: We combine the stellar spectral synthesis code Starburst99, the nebular modeling code MAPPINGS III and a one-dimensional dynamical evolution model of H II regions around massive clusters of young stars to generate improved models of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies. We introduce a compactness parameter, , which characterizes the specific intensity of the radiation field at ionization fronts in H II regions and which controls the shape of the far-infrared (IR) dust reemission, often referred to loosely as the dust temperature. We also investigate the effect of metallicity on the overall SED and in particular, on the strength of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. We provide templates for the mean emission produced by the young compact H II regions, the older (10-100 Myr) stars and for the wavelength-dependent attenuation produced by a foreground screen of the dust used in our model. We demonstrate that these components may be combined to produce a excellent fit to the observed SEDs of star formation-dominated galaxies which are often used as templates (Arp 220 and NGC 6240). This fit extends from the Lyman limit to wavelengths of about 1 mm. The methods presented in both this paper and in the previous papers of this series allow the extraction of the physical parameters of the starburst region (star formation rates, star formation rate history, mean cluster mass, metallicity, dust attenuation, and pressure) from the analysis of the pan-spectral SED.

252 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors combine far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, COSMOS fields, and it is possible to sample the 8-500μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands.
Abstract: Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8–500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7–10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6–9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10–20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of SED templates. Finally, the library is used to classify 24 μm detected sources in PEP GOODS fields on the basis of AGN content, L(60)/L(100) color and L(160)/L(1.6) luminosity ratio. AGN appear to be distributed in the stellar mass (M_∗) vs. star formation rate (SFR) space along with all other galaxies, regardless of the amount of infrared luminosity they are powering, with the tendency to lie on the high SFR side of the “main sequence”. The incidence of warmer star-forming sources grows for objects with higher specific star formation rates (sSFR), and they tend to populate the “off-sequence” region of the M_∗ − SFR − z space.

203 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the dependence of the total-infrared to UV luminosity ratio method for calculating the UV dust attenuation A(UV) from the age of the underlying stellar populations by using a library of spectral energy distributions for galaxies with different star formation histories.
Abstract: We investigate the dependence of the total-infrared (TIR) to UV luminosity ratio method for calculating the UV dust attenuation A(UV) from the age of the underlying stellar populations by using a library of spectral energy distributions for galaxies with different star formation histories. Our analysis confirms that the TIR/UV vs. A(UV) relation varies significantly with the age of the underlying stellar population: i.e. for the same TIR/UV ratio, systems with low specific star formation rate (SSFR) suffer a lower UV attenuation than starbursts. Using a sample of nearby field and cluster spiral galaxies we show that the use of a standard (i.e. age independent) TIR/UV vs. A(UV) relation leads to a systematic overestimate up to 2 magnitudes of the amount of UV dust attenuation suffered by objects with low SSFR and in particular HI-deficient star forming cluster galaxies. This result points out that the age independent $TIR/UV$ vs. $A(UV)$ relation cannot be used to study the UV properties of large samples of galaxies including low star-forming systems and passive spirals. Therefore we give some simple empirical relations from which the UV attenuation can be estimated taking into account its dependence on the age of the stellar populations, providing a less biased view of UV properties of galaxies.

164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use the latest Padova isochrones, with detailed modelling of the Thermally Pulsing AGB phase, to update theoretical colour-M/L relations in the optical and NIR and discuss the consequences for the estimated stellar masses in external galaxies.
Abstract: Colour-M/L (mass-to-light) relations are a popular recipe to derive stellar mass in external galaxies. Stellar mass estimates often rely on near infrared (NIR) photometry, considered an optimal tracer since it is little affected by dust and by the "frosting" effect of recent star formation episodes. However, recent literature has highlighted that theoretical estimates of the NIR M/L ratio strongly depend on the modelling of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. We use the latest Padova isochrones, with detailed modelling of the Thermally Pulsing AGB phase, to update theoretical colour-M/L relations in the optical and NIR and discuss the consequences for the estimated stellar masses in external galaxies. We also discuss the effect of attenuation by interstellar dust on colour-M/L relations in the statistical case of large galaxy samples.

157 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the spectral evolution of stellar populations at ages between 100,000 yr and 20 Gyr at a resolution of 3 A across the whole wavelength range from 3200 to 9500 A for a wide range of metallicities.
Abstract: We present a new model for computing the spectral evolution of stellar populations at ages between 100,000 yr and 20 Gyr at a resolution of 3 A across the whole wavelength range from 3200 to 9500 A for a wide range of metallicities. These predictions are based on a newly available library of observed stellar spectra. We also compute the spectral evolution across a larger wavelength range, from 91 A to 160 micron, at lower resolution. The model incorporates recent progress in stellar evolution theory and an observationally motivated prescription for thermally-pulsing stars on the asymptotic giant branch. The latter is supported by observations of surface brightness fluctuations in nearby stellar populations. We show that this model reproduces well the observed optical and near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams of Galactic star clusters of various ages and metallicities. Stochastic fluctuations in the numbers of stars in different evolutionary phases can account for the full range of observed integrated colours of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. The model reproduces in detail typical galaxy spectra from the Early Data Release (EDR) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We exemplify how this type of spectral fit can constrain physical parameters such as the star formation history, metallicity and dust content of galaxies. Our model is the first to enable accurate studies of absorption-line strengths in galaxies containing stars over the full range of ages. Using the highest-quality spectra of the SDSS EDR, we show that this model can reproduce simultaneously the observed strengths of those Lick indices that do not depend strongly on element abundance ratios [abridged].

10,384 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as mentioned in this paper provides the data to support detailed investigations of the distribution of luminous and non-luminous matter in the Universe: a photometrically and astrometrically calibrated digital imaging survey of pi steradians above about Galactic latitude 30 degrees in five broad optical bands.
Abstract: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will provide the data to support detailed investigations of the distribution of luminous and non- luminous matter in the Universe: a photometrically and astrometrically calibrated digital imaging survey of pi steradians above about Galactic latitude 30 degrees in five broad optical bands to a depth of g' about 23 magnitudes, and a spectroscopic survey of the approximately one million brightest galaxies and 10^5 brightest quasars found in the photometric object catalog produced by the imaging survey. This paper summarizes the observational parameters and data products of the SDSS, and serves as an introduction to extensive technical on-line documentation.

10,039 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Donald G. York1, Jennifer Adelman2, John E. Anderson2, Scott F. Anderson3  +148 moreInstitutions (29)
TL;DR: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) as discussed by the authors provides the data to support detailed investigations of the distribution of luminous and non-luminous matter in the universe: a photometrically and astrometrically calibrated digital imaging survey of π sr above about Galactic latitude 30° in five broad optical bands to a depth of g' ~ 23 mag.
Abstract: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) will provide the data to support detailed investigations of the distribution of luminous and nonluminous matter in the universe: a photometrically and astrometrically calibrated digital imaging survey of π sr above about Galactic latitude 30° in five broad optical bands to a depth of g' ~ 23 mag, and a spectroscopic survey of the approximately 106 brightest galaxies and 105 brightest quasars found in the photometric object catalog produced by the imaging survey. This paper summarizes the observational parameters and data products of the SDSS and serves as an introduction to extensive technical on-line documentation.

9,835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Starburst99 as mentioned in this paper is a comprehensive set of model predictions for spectrophotometric and related properties of galaxies with active star formation, which is an improved and extended version of the data set previously published by Leitherer & Heckman.
Abstract: Starburst99 is a comprehensive set of model predictions for spectrophotometric and related properties of galaxies with active star formation. The models are an improved and extended version of the data set previously published by Leitherer & Heckman. We have upgraded our code by implementing the latest set of stellar evolution models of the Geneva group and the model atmosphere grid compiled by Lejeune et al. Several predictions which were not included in the previous publication are shown here for the first time. The models are presented in a homogeneous way for five metallicities between Z = 0.040 and 0.001 and three choices of the initial mass function. The age coverage is 106—109 yr. We also show the spectral energy distributions which are used to compute colors and other quantities. The full data set is available for retrieval at a Web site, which allows users to run specific models with nonstandard parameters as well. We also make the source code available to the community.

4,212 citations