Modern Applied Statistics with S
01 Dec 2010-Iss: 1
TL;DR: A guide to using S environments to perform statistical analyses providing both an introduction to the use of S and a course in modern statistical methods.
Abstract: A guide to using S environments to perform statistical analyses providing both an introduction to the use of S and a course in modern statistical methods The emphasis is on presenting practical problems and full analyses of real data sets
12 Dec 2011-Journal of Statistical Software
TL;DR: Mice adds new functionality for imputing multilevel data, automatic predictor selection, data handling, post-processing imputed values, specialized pooling routines, model selection tools, and diagnostic graphs.
Abstract: The R package mice imputes incomplete multivariate data by chained equations. The software mice 1.0 appeared in the year 2000 as an S-PLUS library, and in 2001 as an R package. mice 1.0 introduced predictor selection, passive imputation and automatic pooling. This article documents mice, which extends the functionality of mice 1.0 in several ways. In mice, the analysis of imputed data is made completely general, whereas the range of models under which pooling works is substantially extended. mice adds new functionality for imputing multilevel data, automatic predictor selection, data handling, post-processing imputed values, specialized pooling routines, model selection tools, and diagnostic graphs. Imputation of categorical data is improved in order to bypass problems caused by perfect prediction. Special attention is paid to transformations, sum scores, indices and interactions using passive imputation, and to the proper setup of the predictor matrix. mice can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network. This article provides a hands-on, stepwise approach to solve applied incomplete data problems.
01 Mar 2009-Trends in Ecology and Evolution
TL;DR: The use (and misuse) of GLMMs in ecology and evolution are reviewed, estimation and inference are discussed, and 'best-practice' data analysis procedures for scientists facing this challenge are summarized.
Abstract: How should ecologists and evolutionary biologists analyze nonnormal data that involve random effects? Nonnormal data such as counts or proportions often defy classical statistical procedures. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) provide a more flexible approach for analyzing nonnormal data when random effects are present. The explosion of research on GLMMs in the last decade has generated considerable uncertainty for practitioners in ecology and evolution. Despite the availability of accurate techniques for estimating GLMM parameters in simple cases, complex GLMMs are challenging to fit and statistical inference such as hypothesis testing remains difficult. We review the use (and misuse) of GLMMs in ecology and evolution, discuss estimation and inference and summarize 'best-practice' data analysis procedures for scientists facing this challenge.
24 Jun 2011-Genome Biology
TL;DR: A new method for metagenomic biomarker discovery is described and validates by way of class comparison, tests of biological consistency and effect size estimation to address the challenge of finding organisms, genes, or pathways that consistently explain the differences between two or more microbial communities.
Abstract: This study describes and validates a new method for metagenomic biomarker discovery by way of class comparison, tests of biological consistency and effect size estimation. This addresses the challenge of finding organisms, genes, or pathways that consistently explain the differences between two or more microbial communities, which is a central problem to the study of metagenomics. We extensively validate our method on several microbiomes and a convenient online interface for the method is provided at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/lefse/.
17 Mar 2011-BMC Bioinformatics
Abstract: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are useful tools to evaluate classifiers in biomedical and bioinformatics applications. However, conclusions are often reached through inconsistent use or insufficient statistical analysis. To support researchers in their ROC curves analysis we developed pROC, a package for R and S+ that contains a set of tools displaying, analyzing, smoothing and comparing ROC curves in a user-friendly, object-oriented and flexible interface. With data previously imported into the R or S+ environment, the pROC package builds ROC curves and includes functions for computing confidence intervals, statistical tests for comparing total or partial area under the curve or the operating points of different classifiers, and methods for smoothing ROC curves. Intermediary and final results are visualised in user-friendly interfaces. A case study based on published clinical and biomarker data shows how to perform a typical ROC analysis with pROC. pROC is a package for R and S+ specifically dedicated to ROC analysis. It proposes multiple statistical tests to compare ROC curves, and in particular partial areas under the curve, allowing proper ROC interpretation. pROC is available in two versions: in the R programming language or with a graphical user interface in the S+ statistical software. It is accessible at http://expasy.org/tools/pROC/ under the GNU General Public License. It is also distributed through the CRAN and CSAN public repositories, facilitating its installation.
12 Aug 2015-eLife
TL;DR: It is shown that recently reported non-canonical sites do not mediate repression despite binding the miRNA, which indicates that the vast majority of functional sites are canonical.
Abstract: Proteins are built by using the information contained in molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA). Cells have several ways of controlling the amounts of different proteins they make. For example, a so-called ‘microRNA’ molecule can bind to an mRNA molecule to cause it to be more rapidly degraded and less efficiently used, thereby reducing the amount of protein built from that mRNA. Indeed, microRNAs are thought to help control the amount of protein made from most human genes, and biologists are working to predict the amount of control imparted by each microRNA on each of its mRNA targets. All RNA molecules are made up of a sequence of bases, each commonly known by a single letter—‘A’, ‘U’, ‘C’ or ‘G’. These bases can each pair up with one specific other base—‘A’ pairs with ‘U’, and ‘C’ pairs with ‘G’. To direct the repression of an mRNA molecule, a region of the microRNA known as a ‘seed’ binds to a complementary sequence in the target mRNA. ‘Canonical sites’ are regions in the mRNA that contain the exact sequence of partner bases for the bases in the microRNA seed. Some canonical sites are more effective at mRNA control than others. ‘Non-canonical sites’ also exist in which the pairing between the microRNA seed and mRNA does not completely match. Previous work has suggested that many non-canonical sites can also control mRNA degradation and usage. Agarwal et al. first used large experimental datasets from many sources to investigate microRNA activity in more detail. As expected, when mRNAs had canonical sites that matched the microRNA, mRNA levels and usage tended to drop. However, no effect was observed when the mRNAs only had recently identified non-canonical sites. This suggests that microRNAs primarily bind to canonical sites to control protein production. Based on these results, Agarwal et al. further developed a statistical model that predicts the effects of microRNAs binding to canonical sites. The updated model considers 14 different features of the microRNA, microRNA site, or mRNA—including the mRNA sequence around the site—to predict which sites within mRNAs are most effectively targeted by microRNAs. Tests showed that Agarwal et al.'s model was as good as experimental approaches at identifying the effective target sites, and was better than existing computational models. The model has been used to power the latest version of a freely available resource called TargetScan, and so could prove a valuable resource for researchers investigating the many important roles of microRNAs in controlling protein production.
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