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Journal ArticleDOI

Monitoring of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water from Paraíba do Sul River, Brazil

01 Apr 2004-Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society (Brazilian Chemical Society)-Vol. 15, Iss: 2, pp 292-299

AbstractThe Paraiba do Sul River, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, was studied for its water quality, by determining the levels of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from six sites in two cities, Resende and Campos dos Goytacazes, as they have industrial and agricultural activities. This study was carried out between July 2001 and March 2002. The method involved 200 mL samples taken by off-line, solid phase extraction by OASIS polymeric cartridges followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries and standard deviation of pesticides in non polluted real water sample spiked with a standard mixture were 82-119% and less then 20%. For PAH, recoveries and standard deviation were 56-78% and less then 18%, respectively, with exception to acenaphthylene, 23% and 2.7%. Atrazine was detected in the average concentration of 0.231 µg L-1 in two sites in Campos dos Goytacazes, near the sugar-cane power plants and plantations area, while no detection was observed in Resende. Irgarol was observed in Campos dos Goytacazes downtown at 0.138 µg L-1, an area of small boating activities. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected at 0.255 µg L-1 in Resende, near the Presidente Dutra highway. PAHs were not detected in the water samples from Campos dos Goytacazes.

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TL;DR: Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, and proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems by bioenergy crops.
Abstract: Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel production in developing countries such as Brazil. Finally, we support the inclusion of environmental values in the price of biofuels in order to discourage excessive replacement of natural ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, and pasture by bioenergy crops.

343 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides.
Abstract: Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants.

163 citations


Cites background from "Monitoring of pesticides and polycy..."

  • ...Although pesticide concentrations in surface water are routinely monitored and assessed in many countries (Azevedo et al., 2004; Ebbert and Embrey, 2002; Müller et al., 2002; Nakano et al., 2004), pesticide monitoring is cost intensive and requires skilled laboratory staff and sophisticated…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: During oil and gas exploitation, large amounts of produced water are generated. This water has to be analyzed with relation to the chemical composition to deduce the environmental impact of its discharge after a treatment process. Therefore, a study was carried out to evaluate preliminarily the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals contents in produced water samples taken from effluents of the Bonsucesso treatment plant located in the city of Carmopolis, the most important oil and gas producer in the State of Sergipe, North-east of Brazil. Three methods were optimized to determine the target compounds. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS), volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) by gas chromatography with photoionization detector (GC/PID) and metals were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The results showed that concentrations of the target compounds in these samples ranged from 96.7 to 1397 μg L− 1 for BTEX, from 0.9 to 10.3 μg L− 1 for PAHs and from 0.003 to 4540 mg L− 1 for metals.

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

105 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data gathered indicated that caffeine, paracetamol, atenolol, ibuprofen, cephalexin and bisphenol A occur in the μg L-1 range in streams near urban areas, and endocrine disruptors are frequently detected in surface waters, highest concentrations account for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradio.
Abstract: This is the first review to present data obtained in Brazil over the years regarding contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) and to contrast it with contamination in other countries. Data gathered indicated that caffeine, paracetamol, atenolol, ibuprofen, cephalexin and bisphenol A occur in the μg L−1 range in streams near urban areas. While endocrine disruptors are frequently detected in surface waters, highest concentrations account for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 17β-estradiol. Organochlorine pesticides are the most frequently found and persistent in sediments in agricultural regions. Moreover, in tropical agricultural fields, pesticide volatilization and its implications to ecosystem protection must be better investigated. The reality represented here for Brazil may be transposed to other developing countries due to similarities related to primitive basic sanitation infrastructure and economic and social contexts, which contribute to continuous environmental contamination by CEC. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Brazil, treat up to the secondary stage and lead to limited CEC removal. This is also true for other nations in Latin America, such as Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. Therefore, it is an urgent priority to improve sanitation infrastructure and, then, the implementation of tertiary treatment shall be imposed.

88 citations


References
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Book
04 Apr 2013
Abstract: Pesticides and their Degradation Products: Characteristics, Usage and Environmental Behaviour. Introduction. Chemical classes and physico-chemical properties of pesticides. Environmental relevance in the aquatic environment. Degradation of pesticides in the aquatic environment. Toxicity and ecotoxicity. Conclusions. References. Quality Assurance Issues: Sampling, Storage and Interlaboratory Studies. Sampling. Storage. Interlaboratory performance studies. References. Chromatographic and Related Techniques for the Analysis and Detection of Pesticides. Introduction. Gas chromatography. Liquid chromatography. Thin layer chromatography. Capillary electrophoresis. Mass spectrometric methods. Conclusions. References. Sample Handling Techniques (Extraction and Clean-up of Samples). Introduction. Extraction and concentration procedures. Clean-up procedures. Conclusion and further developments. References. On-Line Sample Handling Strategies. Introduction. On-line techniques with separation by liquid chromatography. On-line techniques with separation by gas chromatography. On-line solid-phase extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical chromatography. Conclusion and further trends. References. Immunochemical Methods and Biosensors. Introduction. Immunoassays. Immunochemical sample preparation methods. Biosensors. Conclusions and perspectives.

259 citations


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