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Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Light Weight Vehicle - Design, End Joint Analysis and Testing

TL;DR: In this paper, a single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested.
Abstract: The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel spring with fiberglass composite leaf spring due to high strength to weight ratio. Therefore; the aim of this paper is to present a low cost fabrication of complete mono composite leaf spring and mono composite leaf spring with bonded end joints. Also, general study on the analysis and design. A single leaf with variable thickness and width for constant cross sectional area of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) with similar mechanical and geometrical properties to the multileaf spring, was designed, fabricated (hand-lay up technique) and tested. Computer algorithm using C-language has been used for the design of constant cross-section leaf spring. The results showed that an spring width decreases hyperbolically and thickness increases linearly from the spring eyes towards the axle seat. The finite element results using ANSYS software showing stresses and deflections were verified with analytical and experimental results. The design constraints were stresses (Tsai-Wu failure criterion) and displacement. Compared to the steel spring, the composite spring has stresses that are much lower, the natural frequency is higher and the spring weight is nearly 85 % lower with bonded end joint and with complete eye unit.
Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a single E-glass/Epoxy leaf spring is designed and simulated following the design rules of the composite materials considering static loading only, and it is shown that the resulting design and simulation stresses are much below the strength properties of the material, satisfying the maximum stress failure criterion.
Abstract: Reducing weight while increasing or maintaining strength of products is getting to be highly important research issue in this modern world. Composite materials are one of the material families which are attracting researchers and being solutions of such issue. In this project reducing weight of vehicles and increasing or maintaining the strength of their spare parts is considered. As leaf spring contributes considerable amount of weight to the vehicle and needs to be strong enough, a single E-glass/Epoxy leaf spring is designed and simulated following the design rules of the composite materials considering static loading only. The constant cross section design of leaf springs is employed to take advantages of ease of design analysis and its manufacturing process. And it is shown that the resulting design and simulation stresses are much below the strength properties of the material, satisfying the maximum stress failure criterion. The designed composite leaf spring has also achieved its acceptable fatigue life. This particular design is made specifically for light weight three wheeler vehicles. Its prototype is also produced using hand lay-up method.

47 citations


Cites background or methods from "Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Ligh..."

  • ...Rajendran and Vijayarangan, Optimal design of a composite leaf spring using genetic algorithms, July 2000....

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  • ...Shiva and Vijayarangan, Mono composite leaf spring for light vehicle-design, end joint analysis and testing, Material science, vol.12, No.3, 2006....

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  • ...Mono composite leaf springs with and without eye ends was fabricated by using above said technique [5]....

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  • ...The unidirectional lay-up may weaken the spring at the mechanical joint area and require strengthening the spring in this region [5]....

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  • ...Shivashankar, Vijayarangan, and Pradeep [12] stated that taking the advantages of mass production and continuous fibre accommodation, composite leaf spring with constant cross sectional area is designed using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method....

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01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The finite element modelling and analysis of a multi leaf spring having nine leaves used by a commercial vehicle and results in bending stress and deflection are the target results are carried out.
Abstract: This work is carried out on a multi leaf spring having nine leaves used by a commercial vehicle. The finite element modelling and analysis of a multi leaf spring has been carried out. It includes two full length leaves in which one is with eyed ends and seven graduated length leaves. The material of the leaf spring is SUP9.The FE model of the leaf spring has been generated in CATIA V5 R17 and imported in ANSYS-11 for finite element analysis, which are most popular CAE tools. The FE analysis of the leaf spring has been performed by discretization of the model in infinite nodes and elements and refining them under defined boundary condition. Bending stress and deflection are the target results. A comparison of both i.e. experimental and FEA results have been done to conclude.

46 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The composite leaf spring has gained considerable attention due to its high specific strength/modulus and corrosion resistance, and its design method and performance investigation are the research hotspots in the application field of composite structures as mentioned in this paper.

37 citations

01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this article, a typical leaf spring configuration of a TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study and finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.
Abstract: Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the leaf spring and also to study the behavior of structures under practical conditions. The present work attempts to analyze the safe load of the leaf spring, which will indicate the speed at which a comfortable speed and safe drive is possible. A typical leaf spring configuration of TATA-407 light commercial vehicle is chosen for study. Finite element analysis has been carried out to determine the safe stresses and pay loads.

31 citations


Cites methods from "Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Ligh..."

  • ...LITERATURE SURVEY Shiva Shankar and Vijayarangan [2] manufactured a composite mono leaf spring with an integral eye and tested under static load conditions....

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  • ...Rajendran I, S. Vijayarangan [11] A formulation and solution technique using genetic algorithms (GA) for design optimization of composite leaf springs is presented here....

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  • ...[11] I Rajendran and S Vijayarangan (2002)....

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  • ...Shiva Shankar and Vijayarangan [2] manufactured a composite mono leaf spring with an integral eye and tested under static load conditions....

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  • ...[1] Senthil kumar and Vijayarangan, “Analytical and Experimental studies on Fatigue life Prediction of steel leaf soring and composite leaf multi leaf spring for Light passanger veicles using life data analysis” ISSN 1392 1320 material science Vol. 13 No.2 2007....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a theoretical and experimental study on large deflection behavior of initially curved cantilever beams subjected to various types of loadings, which is known to involve geometrical nonlinearity.

27 citations

References
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Book
24 May 2005
TL;DR: Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Relations Elastic Constants Based on Micromechanics, Plane Stress, Global Coordinate System, Elastic Constant Based on Global Coordinated System, Laminate Analysis - Part I- Laminate analysis - Part II- Effective Elastic Constant of a Laminate- Failure Theories of a Laminating System, Homogenization of Composite Materials, to Damage Mechanics of composite Materials as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Linear Elastic Stress-Strain Relations- Elastic Constants Based on Micromechanics- Plane Stress- Global Coordinate System- Elastic Constants Based on Global Coordinate System- Laminate Analysis - Part I- Laminate Analysis - Part II- Effective Elastic Constants of a Laminate- Failure Theories of a Lamina- to Homogenization of Composite Materials- to Damage Mechanics of Composite Materials

851 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a formulation and solution technique using genetic algorithms (GA) for design optimization of composite leaf springs is presented, where the optimum dimensions of a composite leaf spring have been obtained, which contributes towards achieving the minimum weight with adequate strength and stiffness.

138 citations


"Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Ligh..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...This is an alternative, efficient and economical method over wet filament-winding technique [1]...

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  • ...Rajendran [1, 2] studied the application of composite structures for automobiles and design optimization of a composite leaf spring....

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  • ...Composite leaf spring was fabricated using wet filamentwinding technique [1]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Caracteristiques d'un ressort a lame en matiere plastique renforcee de fibres de verre et de carbone as discussed by the authors, a lame is a lame with fibres of verre and carbone.
Abstract: Caracteristiques d'un ressort a lame en matiere plastique renforcee de fibres de verre et de carbone

38 citations


"Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Ligh..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Because of FRP materials high elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength-to-weight ratio compared with those of steel, multi-leaf steel springs are being replaced by monoleaf FRP springs [6, 7]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the performance of two composite material bevel gears is compared with a carbon steel gear from a static strength and displacement point of view, and it is concluded that composite materials such as boron/epoxy can be very much thought of as a material for power transmission bevel gear.

13 citations


"Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Ligh..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Vijayarangan [5] showed the introduction of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) made it possible to reduce the weight of a machine element with out any reduction of the load carrying capacity....

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