Monoaminergic correlates of penicillin-induced epilepsy
01 Feb 2003-Biogenic Amines (Society of Integrated Sciences)-Vol. 18, Iss: 1, pp 29-40
TL;DR: The results obtained clearly show that the nervous structures tested with PCN had a different neurotransmitter response pattern which significantly changed along the cortico-cerebellar axis.
Abstract: A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between the various neurotransmitter mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to gain an understanding of the brain neurotransmitter involvement in experimental epilepsy. Adult male Holtzman strain rats were subjected to convulsions triggered by intracortical (somatosensory cortex) penicillin (PCN) administration (100 IU, 100 μl) and the regional brain levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were assayed in epileptic rats. The results of the study revealed a decrease in the NE level in the cerebral cortex (cc), cerebellum (cb), caudate nuclei (cn) and midbrain (mb) except an increment in the chronic cortical NE. On the other hand DA level had increased significantly in the cc and mb though in the cb and cn the level had lowered. 5-HT levels were decreased in the cb, cn and mb while in the cc an enhanced level of 5-HT was observed. The results obtained clearly show that the nervous structures tested with PCN had a different neurotransmitter response pattern which significantly changed along the cortico-cerebellar axis.
TL;DR: Data presented in this study clearly show that Acorus calamus possesses the ability for preventing the development of FeCl3-induced epileptogenesis by modulating antioxidant enzymes, which in turn exhibit the potentiality of AcorusCalamus to be developed as an effective anti-epileptic drug.
Abstract: The roots and rhizomes of Acorus calamus (Family: Araceae) have been used in the ancient systems of medicine for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Of the various methods used for inducing experimental epileptic models, the intracortical administration of ferric chloride (FeCl(3)) into sensorimotor cortex induces recurrent seizures and epileptic discharge similar to human post-traumatic epilepsy through the generation of free radicals. The present study focuses on the effect of Acorus calamus on the behavioral, electroencephalographic, and antioxidant changes in FeCl(3)-induced rat epileptogenesis. Topical administration of FeCl(3) (5 microL; 100 mM) into the sensorimotor cortex of rats showed an increase in the wet dog shake behavior, spike wave discharges together with an significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, resulting in an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex. Pretreatment with Acorus calamus (200 mg/kg b.w., p.o. for 14 days) and also diazepam (DZ, 20 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) decreased the WDS behavior, spike wave discharges with single isolated positive waves, and a significant decrease in activity of superoxide dismutase and level of lipid peroxidation was observed in cerebral cortex with respect to those observed in FeCl(3)-induced epileptic group. Data presented in this study clearly show that Acorus calamus possesses the ability for preventing the development of FeCl(3)-induced epileptogenesis by modulating antioxidant enzymes, which in turn exhibit the potentiality of Acorus calamus to be developed as an effective anti-epileptic drug.
TL;DR: In this paper, Spinacia oleracea (SO) has been evaluated against the development of Amygdala kindled (AMK) experimental epileptogenesis in a Holtzman strain adult male albino rats.
Abstract: The protective role of Spinacia oleracea (SO) has been evaluated against the development of Amygdala kindled (AMK) experimental epileptogenesis. Thirty six Holtzman strain adult male albino rats (200-250 g) were equally divided into 1) control, 2) SO, 3) AMK, 4) SO+AMK, 5) DZ+AMK group. After discharge duration (ADD) were used as indices of kindled seizures. In AMK group, seizure stages reached upto stage 4-5 within the second week. EEG tracings showed that pretreatment with SO in AMK group decreased the ADD and seizure stages of SO pretreated rats were limited within stage 1-2 from 1 st to 4 th week of kindling. Brain monoamine content of Serotonin (5-HT) was decreased in cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), caudate nucleus (CN), midbrain (MB) and pons-medulla (PM) of AMK group which was increased by SO pre-treatment. Alteration of Dopamine (DA) and Norepinephrine (NE) in different brain regions of AMK group was also modulated by SO pre-treatment. Thus SO pre-treatment retards the development of amygdala kindled epilepsy in experimental animals by modulating behavioural and neurochemical aspects.