Monodisperse FePt Nanoparticles and Ferromagnetic FePt Nanocrystal Superlattices
17 Mar 2000-Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science)-Vol. 287, Iss: 5460, pp 1989-1992
TL;DR: Thermal annealing converts the internal particle structure from a chemically disordered face- centered cubic phase to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal phase and transforms the nanoparticle superlattices into ferromagnetic nanocrystal assemblies that can support high-density magnetization reversal transitions.
Abstract: Synthesis of monodisperse iron-platinum (FePt) nanoparticles by reduction of platinum acetylacetonate and decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in the presence of oleic acid and oleyl amine stabilizers is reported. The FePt particle composition is readily controlled, and the size is tunable from 3- to 10-nanometer diameter with a standard deviation of less than 5%. These nanoparticles self-assemble into three-dimensional superlattices. Thermal annealing converts the internal particle structure from a chemically disordered face-centered cubic phase to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal phase and transforms the nanoparticle superlattices into ferromagnetic nanocrystal assemblies. These assemblies are chemically and mechanically robust and can support high-density magnetization reversal transitions.
TL;DR: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties are equally important.
Abstract: The interest in nanoscale materials stems from the fact that new properties are acquired at this length scale and, equally important, that these properties * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone, 404-8940292; fax, 404-894-0294; e-mail, mostafa.el-sayed@ chemistry.gatech.edu. † Case Western Reserve UniversitysMillis 2258. ‡ Phone, 216-368-5918; fax, 216-368-3006; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org. § Georgia Institute of Technology. 1025 Chem. Rev. 2005, 105, 1025−1102
TL;DR: This review focuses on the synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles, as well as the magnetic properties of nanostructured systems.
Abstract: This review focuses on the synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles, as well as the magnetic properties of nanostructured systems. Substantial progress in the size and shape control of magnetic nanoparticles has been made by developing methods such as co-precipitation, thermal decomposition and/or reduction, micelle synthesis, and hydrothermal synthesis. A major challenge still is protection against corrosion, and therefore suitable protection strategies will be emphasized, for example, surfactant/polymer coating, silica coating and carbon coating of magnetic nanoparticles or embedding them in a matrix/support. Properly protected magnetic nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of various functional systems, and their application in catalysis and biotechnology will be briefly reviewed. Finally, some future trends and perspectives in these research areas will be outlined.
TL;DR: Practical Interests of Magnetic NuclearRelaxation for the Characterization of Superparamagnetic Colloid, and Use of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents forMRI20825.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 20642. Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 20662.1. Classical Synthesis by Coprecipitation 20662.2. Reactions in Constrained Environments 20682.3. Hydrothermal and High-TemperatureReactions20692.4. Sol-Gel Reactions 20702.5. Polyol Methods 20712.6. Flow Injection Syntheses 20712.7. Electrochemical Methods 20712.8. Aerosol/Vapor Methods 20712.9. Sonolysis 20723. Stabilization of Magnetic Particles 20723.1. Monomeric Stabilizers 20723.1.1. Carboxylates 20733.1.2. Phosphates 20733.2. Inorganic Materials 20733.2.1. Silica 20733.2.2. Gold 20743.3. Polymer Stabilizers 20743.3.1. Dextran 20743.3.2. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 20753.3.3. Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) 20753.3.4. Alginate 20753.3.5. Chitosan 20753.3.6. Other Polymers 20753.4. Other Strategies for Stabilization 20764. Methods of Vectorization of the Particles 20765. Structural and Physicochemical Characterization 20785.1. Size, Polydispersity, Shape, and SurfaceCharacterization20795.2. Structure of Ferro- or FerrimagneticNanoparticles20805.2.1. Ferro- and Ferrimagnetic Nanoparticles 20805.3. Use of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents forMRI20825.3.1. High Anisotropy Model 20845.3.2. Small Crystal and Low Anisotropy EnergyLimit20855.3.3. Practical Interests of Magnetic NuclearRelaxation for the Characterization ofSuperparamagnetic Colloid20855.3.4. Relaxation of Agglomerated Systems 20856. Applications 20866.1. MRI: Cellular Labeling, Molecular Imaging(Inﬂammation, Apoptose, etc.)20866.2.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of current research activities that center on the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals, including a brief introduction to nucleation and growth within the context of metal Nanocrystal synthesis, followed by a discussion of the possible shapes that aMetal nanocrystal might take under different conditions.
Abstract: Nanocrystals are fundamental to modern science and technology. Mastery over the shape of a nanocrystal enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application. Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of current research activities that center on the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We begin with a brief introduction to nucleation and growth within the context of metal nanocrystal synthesis, followed by a discussion of the possible shapes that a metal nanocrystal might take under different conditions. We then focus on a variety of experimental parameters that have been explored to manipulate the nucleation and growth of metal nanocrystals in solution-phase syntheses in an effort to generate specific shapes. We then elaborate on these approaches by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for the observed shape control or at least the protocols have proven to be reproducible and controllable. Finally, we highlight a number of applications that have been enabled and/or enhanced by the shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take.
TL;DR: In this article, a method was used for preparing gold NRs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 for which the surface plasmon absorption maxima are between 600 and 1300 nm.
Abstract: A method is used for preparing gold NRs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.5 to 10 for which the surface plasmon absorption maxima are between 600 and 1300 nm. This method has been adapted from a previously published seed-mediated growth method (Jana et al. Adv. Mater. 2001, 13, 1389). The disadvantages and limitations of the earlier method (i.e., formation of noncylindrical NRs, φ-shaped particles, and formation of a large fraction of spherical particles) have been overcome by use of a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped seed instead of a citrate-capped one. In a single-component surfactant system, the silver content of the growth solution was used to grow NRs to a desired length. This results in reproducible formation of NRs with aspect ratios ranging from 1.5 to 4.5. To grow longer NRs with aspect ratios ranging from 4.6 to 10, a binary surfactant mixture composed of benzyldimethylhexadecylammoniumchloride (BDAC) and CTAB was used. NRs are grown in this mixture either by aging or by additio...
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the properties of quantum dots and their ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery, such as the ability of joining the dots to complex assemblies.
Abstract: Current research into semiconductor clusters is focused on the properties of quantum dots-fragments of semiconductor consisting of hundreds to many thousands of atoms-with the bulk bonding geometry and with surface states eliminated by enclosure in a material that has a larger band gap. Quantum dots exhibit strongly size-dependent optical and electrical properties. The ability to join the dots into complex assemblies creates many opportunities for scientific discovery.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the self-organization of CdSe nanocrystallites into three-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot superlattices (colloidal crystals) is demonstrated.
Abstract: The self-organization of CdSe nanocrystallites into three-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot superlattices (colloidal crystals) is demonstrated. The size and spacing of the dots within the superlattice are controlled with near atomic precision. This control is a result of synthetic advances that provide CdSe nanocrystallites that are monodisperse within the limit of atomic roughness. The methodology is not limited to semiconductor quantum dots but provides general procedures for the preparation and characterization of ordered structures of nanocrystallites from a variety of materials.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss thermal effects in the framework of basic Arrhenius-Neel statistical switching models and reveal the onset of thermal decay at "stability ratios" (k/sub u/V/K/sub B/T)/sub 0//spl sime/35 /spl plusmn/ 2.
Abstract: In current longitudinal magnetic recording media, high areal density and low noise are achieved by statistical averaging over several hundred weakly coupled ferromagnetic grains per bit cell. Continued scaling to smaller bit and grain sizes, however, may prompt spontaneous magnetization reversal processes when the stored energy per particle starts competing with thermal energy, thereby limiting the achievable areal density. Charap et al. have predicted this to occur at about 40 Gbits/in/sup 2/. This paper discusses thermal effects in the framework of basic Arrhenius-Neel statistical switching models. It is emphasized that magnetization decay is intimately related to high-speed-switching phenomena. Thickness-, temperature- and bit-density dependent recording experiments reveal the onset of thermal decay at "stability ratios" (K/sub u/V/K/sub B/T)/sub 0//spl sime/35 /spl plusmn/ 2. The stability requirement is grain size dispersion dependent and shifts to about 60 for projected 40 Gbits/in/sup 2/ conditions and ten-year storage times. Higher anisotropy and coercivity media with reduced grain sizes are logical extensions of the current technology until write field limitations are reached. Future advancements will rely on deviations from traditional scaling. Squarer bits may reduce destabilizing stray fields inside the bit transitions. Perpendicular recording may shift the onset of thermal effects to higher bit densities. Enhanced signal processing may allow signal retrieval with fewer grains per bit. Finally, single grain per bit recording may be envisioned in patterned media, with lithographically defined bits.
TL;DR: In this paper, high temperature, solution phase reduction of cobalt chloride in the presence of stabilizing agents was employed to produce magnetic colloids (ferrofluids) of the cobalt nanocrystals.
Abstract: High temperature, solution phase reduction of cobalt chloride in the presence of stabilizing agents was employed to produce magnetic colloids (ferrofluids) of cobalt nanocrystals. We systematically synthesized and isolated nearly monodisperse nanocrystal samples ranging in size from 2 to 11 nm while maintaining better than a 7% std. dev. in diameter. As synthesized cobalt particles are each a single crystal with a complex cubic structure related to the beta phase of elemental manganese (e-Co). Annealing the nanocrystals at 300 °C converts them quantitatively to the more common hexagonal-close-packed crystal form. Deposition of these uniform cobalt particles on solid substrates by evaporation of the carrier solvent results in the spontaneous assembly of two-dimensional and three-dimensional magnetic superlattices (colloidal crystals). A combination of x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry were used to characterize both the d...