scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

More people, more trees in South Eastern Tanzania: local and global drivers of land-use/cover changes

27 Feb 2013-African Geographical Review (Routledge)-Vol. 32, Iss: 1, pp 44-58

Abstract: Land degradation in South Eastern Tanzania, the country’s major cashew producing area, has been attributed to deforestation. By comparing land-use/cover maps derived from aerial photographs of 1965 with maps derived from satellite images of 2002, we assessed how land-use changed in six villages, and relate these to local and global drivers. Land-use/cover changes are complex processes, which we analyzed by determining the relative net changes, losses, persistence and gains of each land-use/cover categories. Widespread planting of cashew trees only started in the 1960s; while the ‘villagisation’ program in the 1970s, altered settlement patterns as centrally planned villages were created. Population growth and rural development policies were major local drivers for land-use/cover change; international trade and technological innovations were principal global drivers. Though population increase led to a reduction of natural vegetation, the spread of cashew trees resulted in a case of ‘more people, more trees...
Topics: Land use (53%), Deforestation (51%), Land degradation (51%), Population growth (50%)

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

This article was downloaded by: [KU Leuven University Library]
On: 04 January 2013, At: 00:40
Publisher: Routledge
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered
office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
African Geographical Review
Publication details, including instructions for authors and
subscription information:
http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rafg20
More people, more trees in South
Eastern Tanzania: local and global
drivers of land-use/cover changes
Andrew Kabanza
a
, Stefaan Dondeyne
b
, John Tenga
a
, Didas
Kimaro
c
, Jean Poesen
b
, Elly Kafiriti
b
& Jozef Deckers
a
a
Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Mtwara, Tanzania
b
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Catholic
University, Heverlee, Belgium
c
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Land Planning,
Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Version of record first published: 04 Jan 2013.
To cite this article: Andrew Kabanza , Stefaan Dondeyne , John Tenga , Didas Kimaro , Jean
Poesen , Elly Kafiriti & Jozef Deckers (2013): More people, more trees in South Eastern
Tanzania: local and global drivers of land-use/cover changes, African Geographical Review,
DOI:10.1080/19376812.2012.746093
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2012.746093
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE
Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-
conditions
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any
substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,
systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.
The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation
that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any
instructions, formulae, and drug doses should be independently verified with primary
sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings,
demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or
indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.

RESEARCH ARTICLE
More people, more trees in South Eastern Tanzania: local and global
drivers of land-use/cover changes
Andrew Kabanza
a
, Stefaan Dondeyne
b
*, John Tenga
a
, Didas Kimaro
c
, Jean Poesen
b
, Elly
Kariti
b
and Jozef Deckers
a
a
Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Mtwara, Tanzania;
b
Department of Earth and
Environmental Sciences, Catholic University, Heverlee, Belgium;
c
Department of Agricultural
Engineering and Land Planning, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
(Received 28 April 2012; accepted 29 October 2012)
Land degradation in South Eastern Tanzania, the countrys major cashew producing area,
has been attributed to deforestation. By comparing land-use/cover maps derived from aerial
photographs of 1965 with maps derived from satellite images of 2002, we assessed how
land-use changed in six villages, and relate these to local and global drivers. Land-use/cover
changes are complex processes, which we analyzed by determining the relative net changes,
losses, persistence and gains of each land-use/cover categories. Widespread planting of
cashew trees only started in the 1960s; while the villagisation program in the 1970s,
altered settlement patterns as centrally planned villages were created. Population growth and
rural development policies were major local drivers for land-use/cover change; international
trade and technological innovations were principal global drivers. Though population
increase led to a reduction of natural vegetation, the spread of cashew trees resulted in a
case of more people, more trees. How far the ensuing deforestation affected the
biodiversity of the area and how sustainable the production of cashew nuts actually is,
remains yet unresolved questions.
Keywords: cashew nut; deforestation; villagisation; population growth; land degradation
Introduction
General concern about land-use change arose from the realization that transformation in land-
use/cover inuences, surface hydrology, soil erosion, climate and biodiversity, hence the inter-
est in processes leading to deforestation, desertication and other changes in natural
vegetation (Lambin, Geist, and Lepers, 2003). It is commonly accepted that the growing
human population in the world incre asingly needs more arable land, which results into a
decline of worlds forests, grasslands and woodlands (Meyfroidt, Rudel, and Lambin, 2010).
However, while land-use changes are often attributed to a single factor, such as shifting
cultivation or population growth, Lambin et al. (2003) argued that land-use change is always
caused by multiple interacting factors, with demographic, economic, technological, policy and
cultural factors as the major underlying causes.
South Eastern Tanzania is the countrys principal production area of cashew nuts
(Anacardium occidentale L.), one of Tanzanias major export commodities (Topper and
Kasuga, 2003; CBT, 2008); in the period from 2003 to 2008 Tanzania ranked between the
*Corresponding author. Email: stefaan.dondeyne@ees.kuleuven.be
African Geographical Review, 2013
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2012.746093
Ó 2012 The African Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers
Downloaded by [KU Leuven University Library] at 00:40 04 January 2013

2
nd
and 8
th
world biggest cashew nut producing countries (FAO, 2011). Most of the cashew
nuts are exported as raw nuts to India, where they are processed before being re-exported to
Europe or North America (URT, 2008). Paradoxically, while So uth Eastern Tanzania is
embedded in the world trade through the cashew production, due to the poor road infrastruc-
ture has been isolated from the rest of the country and has often been regarded a backward
periphery (Seppälä and Koda, 1998). Widespread planting of cashew trees, which are mostly
grown by smallholders, only took hold in the 1960s (Topper and Kasuga, 2003). At that time
people in South Eastern Tanzania were living scattered over the area. In the 1970s, they were
resettled into newly created villages as part of the villagisation program. Figure 1 illustrates
the impact of the introduction of cashew trees and villagisation on land-use/cover in South
Eastern Tanzania. The aim of the villagisation policy was to achieve rural transformation
through village settlement schemes as had been recommended by the World Bank in 1960
(Lugoe, 2008). By concentrating people in villages it was expected not only to facilitate the
provision of public services, but also to allow for the possibility of large-scale farming and,
doing so, to increase productivity. Villagisation was implemented more systematically in
South Eastern Tanzania than in other parts of the country (Coulson, 1977).
The Makonde plateau is the most important cashew growing area in South Eastern
Tanzania and where land degradation processe s, such as soil erosion (Achten et al., 2008), soil
acidication (Ngatunga et al 2001; 2003) and losses of soil organic carbon (Rossi et al., 2009),
Figure 1. Aerial photographs of 1965 and of 1981 illustrating land-use/cover changes around Lipalwe,
at the southern edge of the Makonde plateau: (a) in 1965 people were living scattered and annual crops
were dominating the agricultural landscape (light coloured elds) which were in rotation with a
bushfallow (dark coloured elds); (b) in 1981 people were living in large villages (arrows); elds on the
escarpment, which had annual crops in 1962 had reverted to woodland in 1981 (frame 1), while on the
plateau cashew trees, appearing as dark dots, dominate the landscape (frame 2).
2 A. Kabanza et al.
Downloaded by [KU Leuven University Library] at 00:40 04 January 2013

have been linked to land-use/cover changes. As the FAO statistics show (FAO, 2011), follow-
ing a steady increase in the 1960s cashew nut production reached a peak of 145000 MT in
1973. Thereafter, it went into a catastrophic decline reaching a minimum in 1989 of 17000
MT. As resettled people were bound to abandon their elds, this decline has partly been attrib-
uted to the villagisation policy. Moreover, during this period, the government took control over
the marketing system leading to producer prices dropping from 70% of the export price in
1972 to 24% of it in 1980. Production was further constrained in the 1970s by the outbreak of
powdery mildew disease (Oidium anacardii Noack), a fungus whose spread was favored by
the many untended trees (Topper and Kasuga, 2003). Cashew nut production only recovered
with the market liberalization in the 1990s, as farmers were getting favorable prices again
(Rweyemamu, 2002). Meanwhile, internationally supported research found that sulfur is
effective to control the disease. The multi-donor funded Cashew Improvement Program
promoted the use of sulfur together with other improved crop husbandry practices, and so
contributed to the recovery of the cashew nut production (Topper and Kas uga, 2003).
Understanding the patterns and processes of land-use/cover changes has become a funda-
mental goal in studies when investigating the complex interactions between humans and the
environment (Aldwaik and Pontius, 2012). The standard method for comparing land-use/cover
status at two points in time is to determine a cross-tabulation matrix comparing swaps and
overall changes in land-use/cover categories. To gain more detailed insights into the land-use/
dynamics Pontius, Shusas, and McEachern (2004) proposed to analyze the net change, loss,
persistence and gain of land-use/cover categories.
Given the resettlement program, population growth and the increased cashew production
in South Eastern Tanzania, we wanted to assess how these changes may have affected land-
use/cover changes. By focusing on in six villages, we particularly wanted to get better
insights into the forces driving these changes. We therefore not only determined the overall
changes but also investigated how various potential drives may have affected the net change,
loss, persistence and gain of areas allocated to settlement, annual crops, cashew orchards and
natural vegetation.
Materials and methods
Description of the study area
The Makonde plateau (38° 03’–40° 30 E and 10° 05’–11° 25 S) reaches 120 km inland and
is separated from the coast by a narrow plain (Figure 2). Sloping from east to west, its alti-
tude ranges from 80 to 927 m above sea level. The eastern, lower part has sharply incised
valleys and is mapped as the Makonde Dissected Plateau; the western, higher part is
mapped as the Makonde High Plateau where a 300 metre high escarpment forms the
western edge of the plateau.
Natural vegetation on the Makonde plateau is part of the Eastern African coastal forests,
which is considered a global biodiversity hotspot (Timberlake et al., 2011). It consists primar-
ily of woodlands, wooded grasslands and bushlands. Woodlands and pockets of evergreen
forests also occur on the escarpment. The traditional cropping system is a fallow system: after
slashing and burning of forest or fallow vegetation, elds are cultivated for four years with
maize, upland rice, sorghum and cassava. Though cashew trees produce well on the plateau,
they only produce below 800 meters above sea level, as at higher altitude the climate is too
cold for fruit setting (Dondeyne et al., 2003a).
We studied land-use/cover changes in six villages: two on the Makonde Dissected Plateau
(Naliendele, Nachunyu), two on the Makonde Hi gh Plateau (Mahuta bondeni, Nambunga)
and two at the base of the escarpment (Chiwambo, Lipalwe) (Figure 2).
African Geographical Review 3
Downloaded by [KU Leuven University Library] at 00:40 04 January 2013

Land-use/cover maps
Land-use cover maps were made based on panchromatic aerial photographs of 1965 (scale
approximate scale of 1:50,000, Survey and Mapping Division of Tanzania) and which were
compared with land-use/cover maps deriv ed from Landsat TM images from 2002. Aerial
photographs were interpreted using mirror stereoscope. Image interpretatio n elements and
characteristics such as relief, drainage pattern, vegetation cover, land-use, association of
objects and features such as footpath and tracks were taken as key attributes for land cover
analysis following procedures as outlined by Dent and Young (1981) and Lillesand and
Kiefer (2000). The interpreted features were then used as a base for establishing broad classes
of land cover units, which were delineated, digitised and converted into a GIS database
(ESRI, 1995) to produce land-use/cover maps of the study sites for 1965 period. These maps
were geo-referenced to Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM) Coordinates zone 37 south,
using the topographic maps as reference (sheets: Mtwara 296/3, Tandahimba 307/1, Newala
306/4, Namikupa 307/3, Lulindi 306/3).
Landsat TM images of 2002 had been obtained from the US Geological Service.
1
These
images were digital enhanced with the ERDAS software progra m (ERDAS, 2003). To rein-
force the visual interpretability of the image, a color composite (Landsat TM bands 4 5 3)
was prepared and its contrast was stretched using a Gaussian distribution function. Further-
more, a 3 3 high pass lter was applied to the color composite to further enhance visual
interpretability of linear features, e.g. rivers, and patterns such as cultivation. To ensure
accurate ident ication of land-use/cover classes and geometric compatibility with infor mation
obtained from aerial photo interpretation, the Landsat TM images were also geo-referenced to
the co-ordinate system of the national topographic maps (UTM37s). Subsequently, land units
that could visually be identied as homogenous land- use/cover classes were digitized on
screen using ArcView software (ESRI, 1995) to obtain maps comparable to, and compatible
with, the ones derived from the aerial photographs.
The preliminary made maps were subsequently veried and corrected after cross checking
in the eld in 2004. GPS was used to locate observation sites. Local people were involved to
give additional information on land-use/cover.
Figure 2. Location of six study sites on the Makonde plateau in South Eastern Tanzania. Terrain
image derived from SRTMv4 data (available at http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org).
4 A. Kabanza et al.
Downloaded by [KU Leuven University Library] at 00:40 04 January 2013

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2019-Land Use Policy
Abstract: This study examined the trends, driving factors, and implications of land use/land cover (LULC) dynamics over the past 35 years (1982–2017) in three watersheds of the drought-prone areas that represent different agro-ecologies of Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia: Guder (highland), Aba Gerima (midland), and Debatie (lowland). The changes in LULC were analyzed by integrating field observations, remote-sensing data (aerial photographs [1: 50,000 scale] and very high resolution [0.5–3.2 m] satellite images), and geographic information systems. The drivers of LULC were explored using key informant interviews and relevant literature reviews. The implications of LULC change on soil erosion and surface runoff responses were also evaluated. A minimum of four and maximum of six LULC classes were identified in each watershed over the study period. The study revealed that forest land was the dominant LULC class accounting for 40.9% and 32.0% in Guder and Aba Gerima, respectively in 1982. While in the same period, bush land (36.6%) was the dominant LULC class in Debatie watershed. From 1982 to 2016/2017, forest land, bush land, and grazing land respectively decreased by about 70%, 50%, and 27% in Guder; 65%, 49%, and 63% in Aba Gerima; and 63%, 59%, and 38% in Debatie. During the same period, cultivated land increased by approximately 40%, 129%, and 704% in Guder, Aba Gerima and Debatie, respectively. In contrast, between 2012 and 2017, plantation cover increased by about 400% in the Guder, mainly at the expense of cultivated land, which decreased by 40% for the same period. Population growth and associated changes in the farming practices were the major driving forces for the observed LULC changes in the study watersheds. The traditionally deleterious impacts of human activities on the environment have been recently reversed at an unprecedented rate, particularly at Guder and to a lesser extent at Aba Gerima, following the shift from the traditional annual cropping to more economically attractive tree-based farming practices such as Acacia decurrens plantation in Guder and khat (Catha edulis) cultivation in Aba Gerima. The continued expansion of cultivated land combined with population growth positively linked to the increase of gully erosion and surface runoff potential in the study watersheds particularly, in Aba Gerima and Debatie watersheds. The Upper Blue Nile basin is currently experiencing both positive and negative socio-economic and environmental consequences of LULC dynamics. Hence, the present study can help form a basis for the appropriate development of land management policies and strategies in this and other basins experiencing similar problems.

51 citations


01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: The southwestern Ethiopian montane forests are one of the most species‐rich ecosystems and are recognised globally as a priority area for the conservation of biodiversity. Particularly, in contrast to the drier central and northern Ethiopian highlands, they have received little attention by researchers. Here, we review changes to agricultural systems in and around these forests that are known as the genetic home of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and that are important to the livelihoods of many rural people who have developed traditional management practices based on agro‐ecological knowledge, religious taboos and customary tenure rights. We explored the impacts of conversions to agroforestry and cereal‐based cropping systems on biodiversity, soil fertility, soil loss and the socio‐economic conditions and culture. The increasing trend of cereal cropping, resettlement and commercial agriculture causes the deterioration of natural forest cover in the region and threatens biodiversity, land quality, sustainable, traditional farming practices and the livelihood of the local community. Large‐scale plantations of tea, coffee, soapberry locally known as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Her.) and cereals have resulted in biodiversity loss. Following the conversion of forests, cultivated fields exhibit a significant decline in soil fertility and an increase in soil loss as compared with the traditional agroforestry system. The establishment of a sustainable agricultural system will require a change in paradigm, whereby the intrinsic values of the traditional forest‐based agricultural system are recognised, rather than the ongoing mimicking of agricultural policies that were developed for the open fields of central Ethiopia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

43 citations


Cites background from "More people, more trees in South Ea..."

  • ...In contrast, Kabanza et al. (2013) showed that where population density was the highest in southeastern Tanzania, large areas of cropland and bushland were converted to cashew tree cultivation, which represents a case of ‘more people, more trees’....

    [...]

  • ...…(2005); Bedru (2007); Dereje (2007) and Belay (2010) are in agreement with the identified causes of Geist & Lambin (2002); Lambin et al. (2003) and Kabanza et al. (2013), who showed that forest cover changes are driven by a complex of underlying causes rather than by single factors such as…...

    [...]

  • ...Kabanza et al. (2013) also showed that villagisation resulted in a decline in forest cover in the Makonde plateau in southeastern Tanzania, even though the villagisation policy was enacted with the intention to reduce the impact on the forests and to provide collective social services....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Henok Kassa1, Henok Kassa2, Stefaan Dondeyne3, Jean Poesen3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The southwestern Ethiopian montane forests are one of the most species‐rich ecosystems and are recognised globally as a priority area for the conservation of biodiversity. Particularly, in contrast to the drier central and northern Ethiopian highlands, they have received little attention by researchers. Here, we review changes to agricultural systems in and around these forests that are known as the genetic home of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) and that are important to the livelihoods of many rural people who have developed traditional management practices based on agro‐ecological knowledge, religious taboos and customary tenure rights. We explored the impacts of conversions to agroforestry and cereal‐based cropping systems on biodiversity, soil fertility, soil loss and the socio‐economic conditions and culture. The increasing trend of cereal cropping, resettlement and commercial agriculture causes the deterioration of natural forest cover in the region and threatens biodiversity, land quality, sustainable, traditional farming practices and the livelihood of the local community. Large‐scale plantations of tea, coffee, soapberry locally known as endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Her.) and cereals have resulted in biodiversity loss. Following the conversion of forests, cultivated fields exhibit a significant decline in soil fertility and an increase in soil loss as compared with the traditional agroforestry system. The establishment of a sustainable agricultural system will require a change in paradigm, whereby the intrinsic values of the traditional forest‐based agricultural system are recognised, rather than the ongoing mimicking of agricultural policies that were developed for the open fields of central Ethiopia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs) are the result of complex interactions between the human (cultural, socio-economic and political) and the biophysical environment at different spatial scales. The present study assessed the spatial distribution of LULC (1976–2008) in the high and low altitude zones in the northern highlands of Karatu, Tanzania, using both qualitative (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions) and quantitative techniques (Intensity Analysis). The qualitative approach was used to elicit information on the coping strategies adopted by land users as transitions occurred with time and the Intensity Analysis was used to assess the systematic land losses, gains and persistence of the various land categories with time. The results of the Intensity Analysis show that overall land transformation is decelerating in both agro-ecological zones across the two time intervals. In the low altitude zone, woodland, settlements and bushland are active categories unlike cultivated and grassland,...

14 citations


Cites background or result from "More people, more trees in South Ea..."

  • ...This policy also affected land tenure, whereby people claiming descendance from first settlers have the strongest control over access to land (Kabanza et al., 2013)....

    [...]

  • ...This suggestion is consistent with Kabanza et al. (2013) who argued that rural development and land-use policies are a local driver of LULCC in Tanzania....

    [...]


Book
Felicitas Becker1Institutions (1)
01 Aug 2019-
Abstract: How is it that rural poverty in southern Tanzania appears both easy to explain and yet also mystifying? Why is it that 'development' is such a touchstone, when actual attempts at fostering development have been largely ephemeral and/or unpopular for decades? In this book, Felicitas Becker traces dynamics of rural poverty based on the exportation of foodstuffs rather than the better-known problems connected to exportation of migrant labour, and examines what has kept the development industry going despite its failure to break these dynamics. Becker argues that development planners often exaggerated their prospects to secure funding, repackaged old strategies as new to maintain their promise, and shifted blame onto rural Africans for failing to meet the expectations they had raised. But the rural poor, too, pursued conversations on the causes and morality of poverty and wealth. Despite their dependence and deprivation, officials found repeatedly that they could not take them for granted.

6 citations


References
More filters

Book
Thomas Martin Lillesand1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1979-
Abstract: A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

6,790 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Concepts and Foundations of Remote Sensing Elements of Photographic Systems Basic Principles of Photogrammetry Introduction to Visual Image Interpretation Multispectral, Thermal, and Hyperspectral Sensing Earth Resource Satellites Operating in the Optical Spectrum Digital Image Processing Microwave and Lidar Sensing Appendix A: Radiometric Concepts, Terminology, and Units Appendix B: Remote Sensing Data and Information Resources Appendix C: Sample Coordinate Transformation and Resampling Procedures

6,523 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2002-BioScience
TL;DR: Tropical deforestation is driven by identifiable regional patterns of causal factor synergies, of which the most prominent are economic factors, institutions, national policies, and remote influences driving agricultural expansion, wood extraction, and infrastructure extension (at the proximate level).
Abstract: Articles O ne of the primary causes of global environmental change is tropical deforestation, but the question of what factors drive deforestation remains largely unanswered (NRC 1999). Various hypotheses have produced rich arguments , but empirical evidence on the causes of deforestation continues to be largely based on cross-national statistical In some cases, these analyses are based on debatable data on rates of forest cover change (Palo 1999). The two major, mutually exclusive—and still unsatisfactory—explanations for tropical deforestation are single-factor causation and irre-ducible complexity. On the one hand, proponents of single-factor causation suggest various primary causes, such as shift-On the other hand, correlations between deforestation and multiple causative factors are many and varied , revealing no distinct pattern In addition to chronicling these attempts to identify general causes of deforestation through global-scale statistical analyses, the literature is rich in local-scale case studies investigating the causes and processes of forest cover change in specific localities. Our aim with this study is to generate from local-scale case studies a general understanding of the prox-imate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation while preserving the descriptive richness of these studies. Proximate causes are human activities or immediate actions at the local level, such as agricultural expansion, that originate from intended land use and directly impact forest cover. Underlying driving forces are fundamental social processes, such as human population dynamics or agricultural policies, that underpin the proximate causes and either operate at the local level or have an indirect impact from the national or global level. We analyzed the frequency of proximate causes and underlying driving forces of deforestation, including their interactions , as reported in 152 subnational case studies. We show that tropical deforestation is driven by identifiable regional patterns of causal factor synergies, of which the most prominent are economic factors, institutions, national policies, and remote influences (at the underlying level) driving agricultural expansion, wood extraction, and infrastructure extension (at the proximate level). Our findings reveal that prior stud-Helmut Geist (e-mail: geist@geog.ucl.ac.be) is a postdoctoral researcher (geography) in the field of human drivers of global environmental change and executive director of the Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Eric Lambin is a professor of geography with research interests in remote sensing and human ecology applied to studies of deforestation, desertification, and bio-mass burning in tropical regions. He is the chair of the IGBP and IHDP …

2,684 citations


"More people, more trees in South Ea..." refers background in this paper

  • ...As argued by Geist and Lambin (2002) and Lambin et al. (2003) land-use/cover changes are driven by a complex of underlying causes, rather than by often claimed single factors such as ‘shifting cultivation’ or ‘increasing population’ pressure....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Nov 2003-
Abstract: We highlight the complexity of land-use/cover change and propose a framework for a more general understanding of the issue, with emphasis on tropical regions. The review summarizes recent estimates on changes in cropland, agricultural intensification, tropical deforestation, pasture expansion, and urbanization and identifies the still unmeasured land-cover changes. Climate-driven land-cover modifications interact with land-use changes. Land-use change is driven by synergetic factor combinations of resource scarcity leading to an increase in the pressure of production on resources, changing opportunities created by markets, outside policy intervention, loss of adaptive capacity, and changes in social organization and attitudes. The changes in ecosystem goods and services that result from land-use change feed back on the drivers of land-use change. A restricted set of dominant pathways of land-use change is identified. Land-use change can be understood using the concepts of complex adaptive systems and transitions. Integrated, place-based research on land-use/land-cover change requires a combination of the agent-based systems and narrative perspectives of understanding. We argue in this paper that a systematic analysis of local-scale land-use change studies, conducted over a range of timescales, helps to uncover general principles that provide an explanation and prediction of new land-use changes.

2,206 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Eric F. Lambin1, Patrick MeyfroidtInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A central challenge for sustainability is how to preserve forest ecosystems and the services that they provide us while enhancing food production. This challenge for developing countries confronts the force of economic globalization, which seeks cropland that is shrinking in availability and triggers deforestation. Four mechanisms—the displacement, rebound, cascade, and remittance effects—that are amplified by economic globalization accelerate land conversion. A few developing countries have managed a land use transition over the recent decades that simultaneously increased their forest cover and agricultural production. These countries have relied on various mixes of agricultural intensification, land use zoning, forest protection, increased reliance on imported food and wood products, the creation of off-farm jobs, foreign capital investments, and remittances. Sound policies and innovations can therefore reconcile forest preservation with food production. Globalization can be harnessed to increase land use efficiency rather than leading to uncontrolled land use expansion. To do so, land systems should be understood and modeled as open systems with large flows of goods, people, and capital that connect local land use with global-scale factors.

1,749 citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20201
20195
20181
20172
20161
20151