26 Aug 2015-Phytotaxa (Magnolia Press)-Vol. 224, Iss: 1, pp 45-58
TL;DR: The molecular analysis utilizing cox 1 gene sequences clearly revealed the close relation of Indian and Brazilian specimens with only 0-1 bp intraspecific variation.
Abstract: Pyropia vietnamensis is one of the most luxuriously growing seaweed in Konkan coast, India. In the present study we attempted to explore the morphology, ecology and molecular characteristics exhibited by P. vietnamensis and its taxonomic implications. We described the effects of ecological parameters on the variability of morphological characters. The water motion was found to be one of the most important ecological parameter that governs the plant morphology. The plant was found to grow on entire intertidal region and this may be one of the possible reasons for high morphological variation among the taxa in this region. The molecular analysis utilizing cox 1 gene sequences clearly revealed the close relation of Indian and Brazilian specimens with only 0-1 bp intraspecific variation. The present study provides a beginning to a clearly required detailed study of the morphology, ecology and genetic diversity showed by Pyropia species from Indian waters.
TL;DR: A transoceanic and antitropical pattern of distribution was found forPyropia at both the subgeneric and species level, indicating that the Northwest Pacific might act as a centre of origin for modern distribution of Pyropia since the early Cenozoic.
Abstract: A molecular taxonomic study was undertaken for the first time of the bladed Bangiales of the mainland coast of China (Northwest Pacific) based on sequence data of 201 plastid rbcL and 148 nuclear 18S sequences of historical and contemporary specimens. The results revealed that only one genus of bladed Bangiales, Pyropia, was present along Chinese coast. Species delimitation was determined using two empirical methods: the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and General Mixed Yule Coalescence (GMYC) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. At least fourteen species of Pyropia were recovered. Six species were confirmed that had been recorded previously based on morphology (Py. suborbiculata, Py. yezoensis, Py. haitanensis, Py. katadae, Py. tenera and Py. acanthophora), three species were recorded from China for the first time (Py. kinositae, Py. pseudolinearis and Py. tanegashimensis), and five cryptic species that did not match any molecular sequences were also discovered. The phylogeny of the concatenated rbcL and 18S dataset resolved three singletons and four clades. Each clades has a strong trend towards occupying a biogeographic region, but they are not confined to them. A transoceanic and antitropical pattern of distribution was found for Pyropia at both the subgeneric and species level. This together with high biodiversity (ca. 30% of all known Pyropia species) indicates that the Northwest Pacific might act as a centre of origin for modern distribution of Pyropia since the early Cenozoic.
TL;DR: An examination of molecular differentiation and distribution was undertaken using the mitochondrial COI-5P and plastid rbcL gene sequences, showing evidence that the Philippine populations of Py.
Abstract: Pyropia acanthophora is a foliose Bangiales with widely known endemic populations in Indo-Pacific region. This alga has expanded its range recently as a consequence of introduction. In an attempt t...
Abstract: Seaweeds are a renewable marine resources and have not yet received considerable attention in the field of taxonomy in India as compared to their terrestrial counterparts, essentially due to the lack of awareness of their economic potential. Although the recent inventory from the Indian region documented the presence of approximately 865 seaweed taxa, of which only a few are taxonomically well characterized, more precise information still awaits with respect to microscopic and molecular examinations of many. Thus far, in terms of spatial extent, probably only a few of the total hospitable seaweed habitats have been explored, and large portions, including island territories and subtidal waters, remain virtually untouched. Surveying those may lead to the reporting of several taxa new to science. Furthermore, more focused efforts are required to understand the endemic and endangered taxa which have high conservation implications. Considering the unprecedented pressures seaweeds are facing, including coastal pollution and human-induced global warming, it is critical to reinforce our knowledge of seaweed biodiversity. In the present communication, we intended to address the status of seaweed biodiversity in India along with the gaps, challenges, and opportunities.
TL;DR: The nutritional analysis of P. acanthophora var.
Abstract: Genus Pyropia is one of the nutritionally rich marine algae. Among Indian Pyropia species, Pyropia acanthophora has been documented as a new addition with its new variety robusta. Biodiversity assessment revealed that P. acanthophora var. robusta reported only on the central west coast of India during monsoon (June to September). The nutritional composition of the collected samples was evaluated for proximate analysis along with vitamin C, dietary fiber, pigments, minerals, and fatty acid composition. The protein content was in the range of 14.11 ± 0.62 to 18.36 ± 0.90 g (100 g)−1 dry wt. Lipid content ranged from 1.65 ± 0.25 to 2.56 ± 0.40 g (100 g)−1 dry wt., and the concentrations of PUFA among these lipids were found in considerable quantity. Dietary fiber was also obtained in high concentration and ranged from 45.13 ± 1.30 to 63.0 ± 4.40 g (100 g)−1 dry wt. In this study, the level of K, Na, Mg, Fe, I, and P were appreciably high. Thus, the nutritional analysis of P. acanthophora var. robusta confirmed that it has potential to be used as an ingredient for nutritional supplements.
Cites background or methods from "Morphological, ecological and molec..."
...…Khed, Maharashtra 415 709, India 2 Present address: CSIR-CSMCRI, Marine Algal Research Station, Mandapam, Tamilnadu 623519, India
M.A. Kazi &N. Sreenadhan, a new report with its new variety in India (Kavale et al. 2015a) which had limited occurrence, particularly at Central West cost of India....
...In India, the generic name Porphyra was used up to 2011, but, after the generic revision of Bangiales by Sutherland et al. (2011), all the Porphyra species were transferred to Pyropia (Kavale et al. 2015a, 2015b)....
TL;DR: The recently‐developed statistical method known as the “bootstrap” can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies and shows significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.
Abstract: The recently-developed statistical method known as the "bootstrap" can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies. It involves resampling points from one's own data, with replacement, to create a series of bootstrap samples of the same size as the original data. Each of these is analyzed, and the variation among the resulting estimates taken to indicate the size of the error involved in making estimates from the original data. In the case of phylogenies, it is argued that the proper method of resampling is to keep all of the original species while sampling characters with replacement, under the assumption that the characters have been independently drawn by the systematist and have evolved independently. Majority-rule consensus trees can be used to construct a phylogeny showing all of the inferred monophyletic groups that occurred in a majority of the bootstrap samples. If a group shows up 95% of the time or more, the evidence for it is taken to be statistically significant. Existing computer programs can be used to analyze different bootstrap samples by using weights on the characters, the weight of a character being how many times it was drawn in bootstrap sampling. When all characters are perfectly compatible, as envisioned by Hennig, bootstrap sampling becomes unnecessary; the bootstrap method would show significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.
"Morphological, ecological and molec..." refers methods in this paper
...Support for branches was estimated by 1000 bootstrap replicates (Felsenstein 1985)....