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Journal Article

Mourning and its relation to manic-depressive states.

01 Jan 1940-The International Journal of Psychoanalysis (Institute of Psycho-Analysis)-
TL;DR: In this paper, Freud points out that part of the work of mourning is the testing of reality, and explains why this process of carrying out the behest of reality bit by bit, which is in the nature of a compromise, should be so extraordinarily painful.
Abstract: An essential part of the work of mourning is, as Freud points out in 'Mourning and Melancholia', the testing of reality. He says that 'in grief this period of time is necessary for detailed carrying out of the behest imposed by the testing of reality, and ... by accomplishing this labour the ego succeeds in freeing its libido from the lost object', And again: 'Each single one of the memories and hopes which bound the libido to the object is brought up and hyper-cathected, and the detachment of the libido from it accomplished. Why this process of carrying out the behest of reality bit by bit, which is in the nature of a compromise, should be so extraordinarily painful is not at all easy to explain in terms of mental economics. It is worth noting that this pain seems natural to us.' And, in another passage: 'We do not even know by what economic measures the work of mourning is carried through; possibly, however, a conjecture may help us here. Reality passes its verdict—that the object no longer exists—upon each single one of the memories and hopes through which the libido was attached to the lost object, and the ego, confronted as it were with the decision whether it will share this fate, is persuaded by the sum of its narcissistic satisfactions in being alive to sever its attachment to the non-existent object. We may imagine that, because of the slowness and the gradual
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TL;DR: The points to be made in this paper are as follows: i.
Abstract: At first glance, acute grief would not seem to be a medical or psychiatric disorder in the strict sense of the word but rather a normal reaction to a distressing situation. However, the understanding of reactions to traumatic experiences whether or not they represent clear-cut neuroses has become of ever-increasing importance to the psychiatrist. Bereavement or the sudden cessation of social interaction seems to be of special interest because it is often cited among the alleged psychogenic factors in psychosomatic disorders. The enormous increase in grief reactions due to war casualties, furthermore, demands an evaluation of their probable effect on the mental and physical health of our population. The points to be made in this paper are as follows: i. Acute grief is a definite syndrome with psychological and somatic symptomatology. 2. This syndrome may appear immediately after a crisis; it may be delayed; it may be exaggerated or apparently al)sent. 3. In place of the typical syndrome there may appear distorted pictures, each of which represents one special aspect of the grief syndrome. 4. By appropriate techniques these distorted pictures can be successfully transformed into a normal grief reaction with resolution. Our observations comprise tot patients. Included are (i) psychoneurotic patients who lost a relative during the course of treatment, (2) relatives of patients who uied in the hospital, (3) bereaved disaster victims (Cocoanut Grove Fire) and their close relatives, ( ) relatives of members of the armed forces.

2,717 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An historical sketch of the manner in which evidence has accumulated showing the ill effects of separation, loss, and maternal deprivation during the early years, and of how a new conceptual framework, often referred to as attachment theory, has been formulated for understanding personality development and psychopathology.
Abstract: An historical sketch of the manner in which evidence has accumulated showing the ill effects of separation, loss, and maternal deprivation during the early years, and of how, in the light of this evidence, a new conceptual framework, often referred to as attachment theory, has been formulated for understanding personality development and psychopathology.

2,075 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation.
Abstract: Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

1,122 citations


Cites background from "Mourning and its relation to manic-..."

  • ...It seems that what Klein (1940) called projective identi cation in uences anxious individuals’ perception of others, which may result from hyperactivation of the attachment system and an intense search for connectedness....

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