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Journal ArticleDOI

mTORC1 is essential for leukemia propagation but not stem cell self-renewal

01 Jun 2012-Journal of Clinical Investigation (American Society for Clinical Investigation)-Vol. 122, Iss: 6, pp 2114-2129

TL;DR: Transplantation of Raptor-deficient undifferentiated AML cells in a limiting dilution revealed that mTORC1 is essential for leukemia initiation, and it was demonstrated that the reactivation of m TORC1 in those cells restored their leukemia-initiating capacity.

AbstractAlthough dysregulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes leukemogenesis, how mTORC1 affects established leukemia is unclear. We investigated the role of mTORC1 in mouse hematopoiesis using a mouse model of conditional deletion of Raptor, an essential component of mTORC1. Raptor deficiency impaired granulocyte and B cell development but did not alter survival or proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In a mouse model of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Raptor deficiency significantly suppressed leukemia progression by causing apoptosis of differentiated, but not undifferentiated, leukemia cells. mTORC1 did not control cell cycle or cell growth in undifferentiated AML cells in vivo. Transplantation of Raptor-deficient undifferentiated AML cells in a limiting dilution revealed that mTORC1 is essential for leukemia initiation. Strikingly, a subset of AML cells with undifferentiated phenotypes survived long-term in the absence of mTORC1 activity. We further demonstrated that the reactivation of mTORC1 in those cells restored their leukemia-initiating capacity. Thus, AML cells lacking mTORC1 activity can self-renew as AML stem cells. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how residual tumor cells circumvent anticancer therapies and drive tumor recurrence.

Topics: Myeloid leukemia (61%), Stem cell (61%), Leukemia (59%), Haematopoiesis (57%), Cellular differentiation (57%)

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Citations
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Journal Article
TL;DR: Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients, and to identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develop effective classification, diagnose and treat for cancer.
Abstract: Stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients.To identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develope effective classification,diagnose and treat ment for cancer.

2,192 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that phosphorylation of the autophagy-adaptor protein p62 markedly increases p62's binding affinity for Keap1, an adaptor of the Cul3-ubiquitin E3 ligase complex responsible for degrading Nrf2, and that inhibitors of the interaction between phosphorylated p62 and Keap 1 have potential as therapeutic agents against human HCC.
Abstract: Summary The Keap1-Nrf2 system and autophagy are both involved in the oxidative-stress response, metabolic pathways, and innate immunity, and dysregulation of these processes is associated with pathogenic processes. However, the interplay between these two pathways remains largely unknown. Here, we show that phosphorylation of the autophagy-adaptor protein p62 markedly increases p62's binding affinity for Keap1, an adaptor of the Cul3-ubiquitin E3 ligase complex responsible for degrading Nrf2. Thus, p62 phosphorylation induces expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 targets. p62 is assembled on selective autophagic cargos such as ubiquitinated organelles and subsequently phosphorylated in an mTORC1-dependent manner, implying coupling of the Keap1-Nrf2 system to autophagy. Furthermore, persistent activation of Nrf2 through accumulation of phosphorylated p62 contributes to the growth of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). These results demonstrate that selective autophagy and the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway are interdependent, and that inhibitors of the interaction between phosphorylated p62 and Keap1 have potential as therapeutic agents against human HCC.

643 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..."

  • ...Phosphorylation of p62 and induction of Nqo1 both decreased upon As(III) exposure in MEFs lacking Raptor (Hoshii et al., 2012), a component of the mTORC1 complex (Figures S2B and S2C)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells is provided.
Abstract: Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future.

225 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..."

  • ...Conversely, the deletion of the MTORC1 component RAPTOR, therefore theoretically causing an increase in autophagy, results in a decrease of this myeloid population.(91) However, it remains to be shown definitively that loss or gain of autophagy contributes to this phenotype, as MTOR inhibition signals for many other important cellular functions such as inhibition of protein translation, mitochondrial biogenesis, cell growth, motility and proliferation....

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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Nov 2013-Blood
TL;DR: It is shown that glutamine removal inhibits mTORC1 and induces apoptosis in AML cells, and that l-ases upregulate glutamine synthase expression in leukemic cells and that a GS knockdown enhances l-ase-induced apoptotic response in someAML cells.
Abstract: Cancer cells require nutrients and energy to adapt to increased biosynthetic activity, and protein synthesis inhibition downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) has shown promise as a possible therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Glutamine contributes to leucine import into cells, which controls the amino acid/Rag/mTORC1 signaling pathway. We show in our current study that glutamine removal inhibits mTORC1 and induces apoptosis in AML cells. The knockdown of the SLC1A5 high-affinity transporter for glutamine induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor formation in a mouse AML xenotransplantation model. l-asparaginase (l-ase) is an anticancer agent also harboring glutaminase activity. We show that l-ases from both Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi profoundly inhibit mTORC1 and protein synthesis and that this inhibition correlates with their glutaminase activity levels and produces a strong apoptotic response in primary AML cells. We further show that l-ases upregulate glutamine synthase (GS) expression in leukemic cells and that a GS knockdown enhances l-ase–induced apoptosis in some AML cells. Finally, we observe a strong autophagic process upon l-ase treatment. These results suggest that l-ase anticancer activity and glutamine uptake inhibition are promising new therapeutic strategies for AML.

199 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..."

  • ...Recently, it was shown in a raptor deficiency mouse model thatmTORC1 inactivation induces apoptosis in differentiated leukemic cells and maintains immature leukemic cells with leukemia initiation potential in a dormant state, underlying the critical role of mTORC1 in leukemia.(4) In vitro, in primary AML cells, mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin has cytostatic effects but does not induce apoptosis,(2-5) mainly because it does not inhibit 4E-BP1 phosphorylation on ser65....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: Stem cell biology has come of age: Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine.
Abstract: Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells is that of self-renewal. Through this property, striking parallels can be found between stem cells and cancer cells: tumours may often originate from the transformation of normal stem cells, similar signalling pathways may regulate self-renewal in stem cells and cancer cells, and cancer cells may include 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal that drive tumorigenesis.

8,515 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jul 2002-Cell
TL;DR: It is reported that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels.
Abstract: mTOR/RAFT1/FRAP is the target of the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and the central component of a nutrient- and hormone-sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell growth. We report that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway. Raptor has a positive role in nutrient-stimulated signaling to the downstream effector S6K1, maintenance of cell size, and mTOR protein expression. The association of raptor with mTOR also negatively regulates the mTOR kinase activity. Conditions that repress the pathway, such as nutrient deprivation and mitochondrial uncoupling, stabilize the mTOR-raptor association and inhibit mTOR kinase activity. We propose that raptor is a missing component of the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels.

2,709 citations


"mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..." refers result in this paper

  • ...Although mTORC1 reportedly controls cell size (cell growth) (34), we did not observe a decrease in the size of our Raptor-deficient AML cells (Figure 6B), and we found that the amount of protein per cell was comparable in control and Raptor-deficient AML stem cells (Figure 6, C and D)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that rapamycin inhibits the assembly of mTORC2 and that, in many cell types, prolongedRapamycin treatment reduces the levels of m TORC2 below those needed to maintain Akt/PKB signaling.
Abstract: The drug rapamycin has important uses in oncology, cardiology, and transplantation medicine, but its clinically relevant molecular effects are not understood. When bound to FKBP12, rapamycin interacts with and inhibits the kinase activity of a multiprotein complex composed of mTOR, mLST8, and raptor (mTORC1). The distinct complex of mTOR, mLST8, and rictor (mTORC2) does not interact with FKBP12-rapamycin and is not thought to be rapamycin sensitive. mTORC2 phosphorylates and activates Akt/PKB, a key regulator of cell survival. Here we show that rapamycin inhibits the assembly of mTORC2 and that, in many cell types, prolonged rapamycin treatment reduces the levels of mTORC2 below those needed to maintain Akt/PKB signaling. The proapoptotic and antitumor effects of rapamycin are suppressed in cells expressing an Akt/PKB mutant that is rapamycin resistant. Our work describes an unforeseen mechanism of action for rapamycin that suggests it can be used to inhibit Akt/PKB in certain cell types.

2,479 citations


"mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...We found that Raptor deficiency did not affect the expression level of Rictor, an essential component of mTORC2, but it is possible that long-term inactivation of mTORC1 in Raptordeficient AML cells affects the assembly and activity of mTORC2, leading to inhibition of AKT, in the same manner as prolonged rapamycin treatment (49)....

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  • ...On the other hand, prolonged rapamycin treatment is reported to suppress AKT via the disassembly of the mTORC2 complex in certain cell types (49)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that feedback down-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is a frequent event in tumor cells with constitutive mTOR activation, and reversal of this feedback loop by rapamycin may attenuate its therapeutic effects, whereas combination therapy that ablates mTOR function and prevents Akt activation may have improved antitumor activity.
Abstract: Stimulation of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor activates the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway causing pleiotropic cellular effects including an mTOR-dependent loss in insulin receptor substrate-1 expression leading to feedback down-regulation of signaling through the pathway. In model systems, tumors exhibiting mutational activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt kinase, a common event in cancers, are hypersensitive to mTOR inhibitors, including rapamycin. Despite the activity in model systems, in patients, mTOR inhibitors exhibit more modest antitumor activity. We now show that mTOR inhibition induces insulin receptor substrate-1 expression and abrogates feedback inhibition of the pathway, resulting in Akt activation both in cancer cell lines and in patient tumors treated with the rapamycin derivative, RAD001. IGF-I receptor inhibition prevents rapamycin-induced Akt activation and sensitizes tumor cells to inhibition of mTOR. In contrast, IGF-I reverses the antiproliferative effects of rapamycin in serum-free medium. The data suggest that feedback down-regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is a frequent event in tumor cells with constitutive mTOR activation. Reversal of this feedback loop by rapamycin may attenuate its therapeutic effects, whereas combination therapy that ablates mTOR function and prevents Akt activation may have improved antitumor activity.

2,323 citations


"mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...org Volume 122 Number 6 June 2012 (32, 33), neither Raptor deficiency nor rapamycin resulted in hyperphosphorylation of AKT (S473) (Figure 6A and Supplemental Fig-...

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Journal Article
TL;DR: Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients, and to identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develop effective classification, diagnose and treat for cancer.
Abstract: Stem cells are defined as cells able to both extensively self-renew and differentiate into progenitors. Research data show that more resistant stem cells than common cancer cells exist in cancer patients.To identify unrecognized differences between cancer stem cells and cancer cells might be able to develope effective classification,diagnose and treat ment for cancer.

2,192 citations


"mTORC1 is essential for leukemia pr..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Deficiency in Pten, a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling, also impairs the quiescence of HSCs, leading to their depletion....

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  • ...Thus, it is unclear how mTORC1 contributes to the control of growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation under physiological conditions. mTORC1 dysregulation promotes leukemogenesis and depletes HSCs (10–14)....

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  • ...both HSCs and leukemia stem cells (CSCs in leukemia), leading to the idea that leukemia stem cells may originate from HSCs (16)....

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  • ...A recent study using a large number of primary human AML patient samples indicated that human AML stem cells are immunophenotypically similar to progenitors, including lymphoid-primed multipotential progenitors and granulocytemacrophage progenitors (GMPs), rather than to HSCs (22)....

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  • ...Previous studies have suggested that common mechanisms regulate stem cell properties (stemness) in both HSCs and leukemia stem cells (CSCs in leukemia), leading to the idea that leukemia stem cells may originate from HSCs (16)....

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