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Journal ArticleDOI

mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Quantity Control by Sensing Chaperone Availability

27 Aug 2010-Journal of Biological Chemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)-Vol. 285, Iss: 35, pp 27385-27395
Topics: Hsp33 (60%), Chaperone (protein) (59%), Protein degradation (59%), CDC37 (59%), Co-chaperone (58%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Since sirtuins are crucial to pathways that counter the decline in health that accompanies aging, pharmacological agents that boost sirtuin activity have clinical potential in treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, osteoporosis, arthritis, and other conditions.
Abstract: Sirtuins are a class of NAD + -dependent deacetylases having beneficial health effects. This extensive review describes the numerous intracellular actions of the seven mammalian sirtuins, their protein targets, intracellular localization, the pathways they modulate, and their role in common diseases of aging. Selective pharmacological targeting of sirtuins is of current interest in helping to alleviate global disease burden. Since all sirtuins are activated by NAD + , strategies that boost NAD + in cells are of interest. While most is known about SIRT1, the functions of the six other sirtuins are now emerging. Best known is the involvement of sirtuins in helping cells adapt energy output to match energy requirements. SIRT1 and some of the other sirtuins enhance fat metabolism and modulate mitochondrial respiration to optimize energy harvesting. The AMP kinase/SIRT1–PGC-1α–PPAR axis and mitochondrial sirtuins appear pivotal to maintaining mitochondrial function. Downregulation with aging explains much of the pathophysiology that accumulates with aging. Posttranslational modifications of sirtuins and their substrates affect specificity. Although SIRT1 activation seems not to affect life span, activation of some of the other sirtuins might. Since sirtuins are crucial to pathways that counter the decline in health that accompanies aging, pharmacological agents that boost sirtuin activity have clinical potential in treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, osteoporosis, arthritis, and other conditions. In cancer, however, SIRT1 inhibitors could have therapeutic value. Nutraceuticals such as resveratrol have a multiplicity of actions besides sirtuin activation. Their net health benefit and relative safety may have originated from the ability of animals to survive environmental changes by utilizing these stress resistance chemicals in the diet during evolution. Each sirtuin forms a key hub to the intracellular pathways affected.

298 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Qu..."

  • ...TOR is able to sense and respond differentially to mild and severe depletion of different chaperones [560]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The molecular mechanisms that link ageing to main stress response pathways are surveyed, and how each pathway contributes to modulate the ageing process is discussed.
Abstract: Ageing is driven by the inexorable and stochastic accumulation of damage in biomolecules vital for proper cellular function. Although this process is fundamentally haphazard and uncontrollable, senescent decline and ageing is broadly influenced by genetic and extrinsic factors. Numerous gene mutations and treatments have been shown to extend the lifespan of diverse organisms ranging from the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae to primates. It is becoming increasingly apparent that most such interventions ultimately interface with cellular stress response mechanisms, suggesting that longevity is intimately related to the ability of the organism to effectively cope with both intrinsic and extrinsic stress. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that link ageing to main stress response pathways, and mediate age‐related changes in the effectiveness of the response to stress. We also discuss how each pathway contributes to modulate the ageing process. A better understanding of the dynamics and reciprocal interplay between stress responses and ageing is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies that exploit endogenous stress combat pathways against age‐associated pathologies.

233 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Qu..."

  • ...The TOR kinase senses chaperone availability and responds differentially to mild and severe depletion of different chaperones (Qian et al, 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is reported that intracellular proteotoxic stress reduces global protein synthesis by halting ribosomes on transcripts during elongation, suggesting a dual role of molecular chaperones in facilitating polypeptide elongation and cotranslational folding.
Abstract: SUMMARY Translational control permits cells to respond swiftly to a changing environment. Rapid attenuation of global protein synthesis under stress conditions has been largely ascribed to the inhibition of translation initiation. Here we report that intracellular proteotoxic stress reduces global protein synthesis by halting ribosomes on transcripts during elongation. Deep sequencing of ribosome-protected messenger RNA (mRNA) fragments reveals an early elongation pausing, roughly at the site where nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Inhibiting endogenous chaperone molecules by a dominant-negative mutant or chemical inhibitors recapitulates the early elongation pausing, suggesting a dual role of molecular chaperones in facilitating polypeptide elongation and cotranslational folding. Our results further support the chaperone ‘‘trapping’’ mechanism in promoting the passage of nascent chains. Our study reveals that translating ribosomes fine tune the elongation rate by sensing the intracellular folding environment. The early elongation pausing represents a cotranslational stress response to maintain the intracellular protein homeostasis.

222 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Qu..."

  • ...Once incorporated into proteins in place of proline, AZC potently induces protein misfolding and degradation (Qian et al., 2010; Trotter et al., 2002)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work will address how protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is achieved at the level of the cell and organism, and how the threshold of the stress response is set to detect and combat protein misfolding.
Abstract: Organisms survive changes in the environmentbyaltering their rates of metabolism, growth, and reproduction. At the same time, the system must ensure the stabilityand functionalityof its macromolecules. Fluctuations in the environment are sensed by highly conserved stress responses and homeostatic mechanisms, and of these, the heat shock response (HSR) represents an essential response to acute and chronic proteotoxic damage. However, unlike the strategies employed to maintain the integrity of the genome, protection of the proteome mustbetailoredtoaccommodatethenormalfluxofnonnativeproteinsandthedifferencesin protein composition between cells, and among individuals. Moreover, adult cells are likely to have significant differences in the rates of synthesis and clearance that are influenced by intrinsicerrorsinproteinexpression,geneticpolymorphisms,andfluctuationsinphysiological and environmental conditions. Here, we will address how protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is achieved at the level of the cell and organism, and how the threshold of the stress response is set to detect and combat protein misfolding. For metazoans, the requirement forcoordinated function and growth imposes additional constraints on the detection, signaling,andresponsetomisfolding,andrequiresthattheHSRisintegratedintovariousaspectsof organismal physiology, such as lifespan. This is achieved by hierarchical regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) by the metabolic state of the cell and centralized neuronal control that could allow optimal resource allocation between cells and tissues. We will examine how protein folding quality control mechanisms in individual cells may be integrated into a multicellular level of control, and further, even custom-designed to support individual variability and impose additional constraints on evolutionary adaptation.

214 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Qu..."

  • ...stress-induced complete depletion of chaperone availability differentially regulates mTORC1 assembly provided additional support for coordination between protein misfolding and regulation of metabolism (Qian et al. 2010)....

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  • ...A recent demonstration that moderate vs. stress-induced complete depletion of chaperone availability differentially regulates mTORC1 assembly provided additional support for coordination between protein misfolding and regulation of metabolism (Qian et al. 2010)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that autophagy serves as a pathway for the turnover of ER membrane and its contents in response to ER stress in plants.
Abstract: In this article, we show that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes morphological changes in structure during ER stress that can be attributed to autophagy. ER stress agents trigger autophagy as demonstrated by increased production of autophagosomes. In response to ER stress, a soluble ER marker localizes to autophagosomes and accumulates in the vacuole upon inhibition of vacuolar proteases. Membrane lamellae decorated with ribosomes were observed inside autophagic bodies, demonstrating that portions of the ER are delivered to the vacuole by autophagy during ER stress. In addition, an ER stress sensor, INOSITOL-REQUIRING ENZYME-1b (IRE1b), was found to be required for ER stress–induced autophagy. However, the IRE1b splicing target, bZIP60, did not seem to be involved, suggesting the existence of an undiscovered signaling pathway to regulate ER stress–induced autophagy in plants. Together, these results suggest that autophagy serves as a pathway for the turnover of ER membrane and its contents in response to ER stress in plants.

195 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 Links Protein Quality and Qu..."

  • ...Several studies have shown an interplay between ER stress and mTOR signaling in animals; for example, constitutive activation of mTOR leads to ER stress (Ozcan et al., 2008) and chaperone availability controls mTOR signaling (Qian et al., 2010)....

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  • ..., 2008) and chaperone availability controls mTOR signaling (Qian et al., 2010)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Feb 2006-Cell
TL;DR: The physiological consequences of mammalianTORC1 dysregulation suggest that inhibitors of mammalian TOR may be useful in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity, and metabolic disorders.
Abstract: The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a conserved Ser/Thr kinase that regulates cell growth and metabolism in response to environmental cues. Here, highlighting contributions from studies in model organisms, we review mammalian TOR complexes and the signaling branches they mediate. TOR is part of two distinct multiprotein complexes, TOR complex 1 (TORC1), which is sensitive to rapamycin, and TORC2, which is not. The physiological consequences of mammalian TORC1 dysregulation suggest that inhibitors of mammalian TOR may be useful in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity, and metabolic disorders.

5,188 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
16 Jul 2009-Nature
TL;DR: It is reported that rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, extends median and maximal lifespan of both male and female mice when fed beginning at 600 days of age.
Abstract: Inhibition of the TOR signalling pathway by genetic or pharmacological intervention extends lifespan in invertebrates, including yeast, nematodes and fruitflies; however, whether inhibition of mTOR signalling can extend lifespan in a mammalian species was unknown. Here we report that rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, extends median and maximal lifespan of both male and female mice when fed beginning at 600 days of age. On the basis of age at 90% mortality, rapamycin led to an increase of 14% for females and 9% for males. The effect was seen at three independent test sites in genetically heterogeneous mice, chosen to avoid genotype-specific effects on disease susceptibility. Disease patterns of rapamycin-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. In a separate study, rapamycin fed to mice beginning at 270 days of age also increased survival in both males and females, based on an interim analysis conducted near the median survival point. Rapamycin may extend lifespan by postponing death from cancer, by retarding mechanisms of ageing, or both. To our knowledge, these are the first results to demonstrate a role for mTOR signalling in the regulation of mammalian lifespan, as well as pharmacological extension of lifespan in both genders. These findings have implications for further development of interventions targeting mTOR for the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases.

2,861 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ken Inoki1, Yong Li1, Tianquan Zhu1, Jun Wu1, Kun-Liang Guan1 
TL;DR: It is shown that TSC1–TSC2 inhibits the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and activates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, an inhibitor of translational initiation) and these functions are mediated by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
Abstract: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of hamartomas in a wide range of human tissues. Mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor gene is responsible for both the familial and sporadic forms of this disease. TSC1 and TSC2 proteins form a physical and functional complex in vivo. Here, we show that TSC1-TSC2 inhibits the p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (an activator of translation) and activates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, an inhibitor of translational initiation). These functions of TSC1-TSC2 are mediated by inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, TSC2 is directly phosphorylated by Akt, which is involved in stimulating cell growth and is activated by growth stimulating signals, such as insulin. TSC2 is inactivated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation, which destabilizes TSC2 and disrupts its interaction with TSC1. Our data indicate a molecular mechanism for TSC2 in insulin signalling, tumour suppressor functions and in the inhibition of cell growth.

2,726 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jul 2002-Cell
TL;DR: It is reported that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels.
Abstract: mTOR/RAFT1/FRAP is the target of the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and the central component of a nutrient- and hormone-sensitive signaling pathway that regulates cell growth. We report that mTOR forms a stoichiometric complex with raptor, an evolutionarily conserved protein with at least two roles in the mTOR pathway. Raptor has a positive role in nutrient-stimulated signaling to the downstream effector S6K1, maintenance of cell size, and mTOR protein expression. The association of raptor with mTOR also negatively regulates the mTOR kinase activity. Conditions that repress the pathway, such as nutrient deprivation and mitochondrial uncoupling, stabilize the mTOR-raptor association and inhibit mTOR kinase activity. We propose that raptor is a missing component of the mTOR pathway that through its association with mTOR regulates cell size in response to nutrient levels.

2,709 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that the rictor-mTOR complex modulates the phosphorylation of Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that this aspect of TOR signaling is conserved between yeast and mammals.
Abstract: The mammalian TOR (mTOR) pathway integrates nutrient- and growth factor-derived signals to regulate growth, the process whereby cells accumulate mass and increase in size. mTOR is a large protein kinase and the target of rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that also blocks vessel restenosis and has potential anticancer applications. mTOR interacts with the raptor and GbetaL proteins to form a complex that is the target of rapamycin. Here, we demonstrate that mTOR is also part of a distinct complex defined by the novel protein rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR). Rictor shares homology with the previously described pianissimo from D. discoidieum, STE20p from S. pombe, and AVO3p from S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, AVO3p is part of a rapamycin-insensitive TOR complex that does not contain the yeast homolog of raptor and signals to the actin cytoskeleton through PKC1. Consistent with this finding, the rictor-containing mTOR complex contains GbetaL but not raptor and it neither regulates the mTOR effector S6K1 nor is it bound by FKBP12-rapamycin. We find that the rictor-mTOR complex modulates the phosphorylation of Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting that this aspect of TOR signaling is conserved between yeast and mammals.

2,442 citations