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Journal ArticleDOI

mTORC1 signaling and regulation of pancreatic β-cell mass

15 May 2012-Cell Cycle (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 11, Iss: 10, pp 1892-1902

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that deletion of Tsc1 in pancreatic β cells results in improved glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and expansion of β-cell mass that persists with aging.

AbstractThe capacity of β cells to expand in response to insulin resistance is a critical factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. Proliferation of β cells is a major component for these adaptive responses in animal models. The extracellular signals responsible for β-cell expansion include growth factors, such as insulin, and nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids. AKT activation is one of the important components linking growth signals to the regulation of β-cell expansion. Downstream of AKT, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 and 2 (TSC1/2) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling have emerged as prime candidates in this process, because they integrate signals from growth factors and nutrients. Recent studies demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 signaling in β cells. This review will discuss recent advances in the understanding of how this pathway regulates β-cell mass and present data on the role of TSC1 in modulation of β-cell mass. Herein, we also demonstrate that deletion of Tsc1 ...

Topics: mTORC1 (59%), Protein kinase B (55%), Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt (53%), Signal transduction (53%), Glucose homeostasis (53%)

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Citations
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Journal Article
01 Jan 2004-Nature
Abstract: Elucidating the signalling mechanisms by which obesity leads to impaired insulin action is critical in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diabetes. Recently, mice deficient for S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1), an effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that acts to integrate nutrient and insulin signals, were shown to be hypoinsulinaemic, glucose intolerant and have reduced β-cell mass. However, S6K1-deficient mice maintain normal glucose levels during fasting, suggesting hypersensitivity to insulin, raising the question of their metabolic fate as a function of age and diet. Here, we report that S6K1-deficient mice are protected against obesity owing to enhanced β-oxidation. However on a high fat diet, levels of glucose and free fatty acids still rise in S6K1-deficient mice, resulting in insulin receptor desensitization. Nevertheless, S6K1-deficient mice remain sensitive to insulin owing to the apparent loss of a negative feedback loop from S6K1 to insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), which blunts S307 and S636/S639 phosphorylation; sites involved in insulin resistance. Moreover, wild-type mice on a high fat diet as well as K/K Ay and ob/ob (also known as Lep/Lep) micetwo genetic models of obesityhave markedly elevated S6K1 activity and, unlike S6K1-deficient mice, increased phosphorylation of IRS1 S307 and S636/S639. Thus under conditions of nutrient satiation S6K1 negatively regulates insulin signalling.

1,408 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence accumulated over the past 15 years has highlighted the presence of active Akt in the nucleus, where it acts as a fundamental component of key signaling pathways, and the most relevant findings about nuclear Akt are summarized.
Abstract: Akt is a central player in the signal transduction pathways activated in response to many growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and nutrients and is thought to control a myriad of cellular functions including proliferation and survival, autophagy, metabolism, angiogenesis, motility, and exocytosis. Moreover, dysregulated Akt activity is being implicated in the pathogenesis of a growing number of disorders, including cancer. Evidence accumulated over the past 15 years has highlighted the presence of active Akt in the nucleus, where it acts as a fundamental component of key signaling pathways. For example, nuclear Akt counteracts apoptosis through a block of caspase-activated DNase: deoxyribonuclease and inhibition of chromatin condensation, and is also involved in cell cycle progression control, cell differentiation, mRNA: messenger RNA export, DNA repair, and tumorigenesis. In this review, we shall summarize the most relevant findings about nuclear Akt and its functions.

155 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 signaling and regulation of ..."

  • ...As such, Akt isoforms play key roles in cell survival [17], proliferation [21], growth [22], migration [23], polarity [24], insulin-evoked...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis is defined, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes.
Abstract: Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand-induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand.

131 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 signaling and regulation of ..."

  • ...Intriguingly, in HEK293T cells, the ISR preferentially reduces translation of MTOR-regulated genes (61); β cell proliferation is strictly dependent on MTOR activation (62)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that mTORC1 may act as a "double edge sword" in the regulation of β cell mass and function in response to metabolic stress such as nutrient overload and insulin resistance.
Abstract: Summary The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of metabolic and nutrient cues that integrates environmental inputs into downstream signaling pathways to control cellular metabolism, growth, and survival. While numerous in vitro and in vivo studies reported the positive functions of mTORC1 in the regulation of β cell survival and proliferation under physiological conditions, more recent work demonstrates the opposite in the long term; this is exemplified by the constitutive inappropriate hyper-activation of mTORC1 in diabetic islets or β cells under conditions of increased β cell stress and metabolic demands. These recent findings uncover mTORC1‘s importance as an emerging significant player in the development and progression of β cell failure in type 2 diabetes and suggest that mTORC1 may act as a "double edge sword" in the regulation of β cell mass and function in response to metabolic stress such as nutrient overload and insulin resistance.

92 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Molecular studies in the NAFLD support a key role for PTEN in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, and review recent studies on the features of the PTEN and the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver pathologies and is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, which represents a range of fatty liver diseases associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Molecular mechanisms underlying how to make transition from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not well understood. However, accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in hepatocytes is a common molecular event associated with metabolic dysfunctions including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and the NAFLD. A tumor suppressor PTEN negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT pathways through its lipid phosphatase activity. Molecular studies in the NAFLD support a key role for PTEN in hepatic insulin sensitivity and the development of steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. We review recent studies on the features of the PTEN and the PI3K/AKT pathway and discuss the protein functions in the signaling pathways involved in the NAFLD. The molecular mechanisms contributing to the diseases are the subject of considerable investigation, as a better understanding of the pathogenesis will lead to novel therapies for a condition.

91 citations


Cites background from "mTORC1 signaling and regulation of ..."

  • ...The oxidative stress can activate a series of stress pathways involving a family of serine/threonine kinases including AKT, which in turn have a negative effect on insulin signaling [21]....

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References
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PatentDOI
27 Jan 2006-Science
Abstract: In certain aspects, the invention relates to methods for identifying compounds which modulate Akt activity mediated by the rictor-mTOR complex and methods for treating or preventing a disorder that is associated with aberrant Akt activity.

5,430 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
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Journal ArticleDOI
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3,842 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
26 Nov 2003-Cell
TL;DR: It is described that TSC2 is regulated by cellular energy levels and plays an essential role in the cellular energy response pathway and its phosphorylation by AMPK protect cells from energy deprivation-induced apoptosis.
Abstract: Mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor gene are responsible for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The gene products of TSC1 and TSC2 form a functional complex and inhibit the phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP1, two key regulators of translation. Here, we describe that TSC2 is regulated by cellular energy levels and plays an essential role in the cellular energy response pathway. Under energy starvation conditions, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates TSC2 and enhances its activity. Phosphorylation of TSC2 by AMPK is required for translation regulation and cell size control in response to energy deprivation. Furthermore, TSC2 and its phosphorylation by AMPK protect cells from energy deprivation-induced apoptosis. These observations demonstrate a model where TSC2 functions as a key player in regulation of the common mTOR pathway of protein synthesis, cell growth, and viability in response to cellular energy levels.

3,395 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: AMPK directly phosphorylates the mTOR binding partner raptor on two well-conserved serine residues, and this phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 binding to raptor, uncovering a conserved effector of AMPK that mediates its role as a metabolic checkpoint coordinating cell growth with energy status.
Abstract: AMPK is a highly conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP. AMPK responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, in part through its inhibition of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR (mTORC1) pathway. AMPK phosphorylation of the TSC2 tumor suppressor contributes to suppression of mTORC1; however, TSC2-deficient cells remain responsive to energy stress. Using a proteomic and bioinformatics approach, we sought to identify additional substrates of AMPK that mediate its effects on growth control. We report here that AMPK directly phosphorylates the mTOR binding partner raptor on two well-conserved serine residues, and this phosphorylation induces 14-3-3 binding to raptor. The phosphorylation of raptor by AMPK is required for the inhibition of mTORC1 and cell-cycle arrest induced by energy stress. These findings uncover a conserved effector of AMPK that mediates its role as a metabolic checkpoint coordinating cell growth with energy status.

2,969 citations