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Journal ArticleDOI

Multi-centre analysis of networks and genes modulated by hypothalamic stimulation in patients with aggressive behaviours

22 May 2023-eLife (eLife)-Vol. 12
TL;DR: In this article , the authors conducted an integrated imaging analysis of a large multi-centre dataset, incorporating volume of activated tissue modeling, probabilistic mapping, normative connectomics, and atlas-derived transcriptomics.
Abstract: Deep brain stimulation targeting the posterior hypothalamus (pHyp-DBS) is being investigated as a treatment for refractory aggressive behavior, but its mechanisms of action remain elusive. We conducted an integrated imaging analysis of a large multi-centre dataset, incorporating volume of activated tissue modeling, probabilistic mapping, normative connectomics, and atlas-derived transcriptomics. Ninety-one percent of the patients responded positively to treatment, with a more striking improvement recorded in the pediatric population. Probabilistic mapping revealed an optimized surgical target within the posterior-inferior-lateral region of the posterior hypothalamic area. Normative connectomic analyses identified fiber tracts and functionally connected with brain areas associated with sensorimotor function, emotional regulation, and monoamine production. Functional connectivity between the target, periaqueductal gray and key limbic areas - together with patient age - were highly predictive of treatment outcome. Transcriptomic analysis showed that genes involved in mechanisms of aggressive behavior, neuronal communication, plasticity and neuroinflammation might underlie this functional network.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant update to one of the tools in this domain called Enrichr, a comprehensive resource for curated gene sets and a search engine that accumulates biological knowledge for further biological discoveries is presented.
Abstract: Enrichment analysis is a popular method for analyzing gene sets generated by genome-wide experiments. Here we present a significant update to one of the tools in this domain called Enrichr. Enrichr currently contains a large collection of diverse gene set libraries available for analysis and download. In total, Enrichr currently contains 180 184 annotated gene sets from 102 gene set libraries. New features have been added to Enrichr including the ability to submit fuzzy sets, upload BED files, improved application programming interface and visualization of the results as clustergrams. Overall, Enrichr is a comprehensive resource for curated gene sets and a search engine that accumulates biological knowledge for further biological discoveries. Enrichr is freely available at: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/Enrichr.

6,201 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is the first study to use a consistent transformation framework to provide a reproducible evaluation of the isolated effect of the similarity metric on optimal template construction and brain labeling, and to quantify the similarity of templates derived from different subgroups.

3,491 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Sep 2012-Nature
TL;DR: A transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain is described, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ∼900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals, to form a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function.
Abstract: Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of ~900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography—the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function.

2,204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study suggests that DBS is relatively safe and provides significant improvement in patients with TRD and likely acts by modulating brain networks whose dysfunction leads to depression.

905 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The brain OXT system seems to be a potential target for the development of therapeutics to treat anxiety‐ and depression‐related diseases or abnormal social behaviours including autism, as revealed in rats, mice, sheep and voles.
Abstract: In addition to various reproductive stimuli, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is released both from the neurohypophysial terminal into the blood stream and within distinct brain regions in response to stressful or social stimuli. Brain OXT receptor-mediated actions were shown to be significantly involved in the regulation of a variety of behaviours. Here, complementary methodological approaches are discussed which were utilised to reveal, for example, anxiolytic and anti-stress effects of OXT, both in females and in males, effects that were localised within the central amygdala and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Also, in male rats, activation of the brain OXT system is essential for the regulation of sexual behaviour, and increased OXT system activity during mating is directly linked to an attenuated anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, in late pregnancy and during lactation, central OXT is involved in the establishment and fine-tuned maintenance of maternal care and maternal aggression. In monogamous prairie voles, brain OXT is important for mating-induced pair bonding, especially in females. Another example of behavioural actions of intracerebral OXT is the promotion of social memory processes and recognition of con-specifics, as revealed in rats, mice, sheep and voles. Experimental evidence suggests that, in humans, brain OXT exerts similar behavioural effects. Thus, the brain OXT system seems to be a potential target for the development of therapeutics to treat anxiety- and depression-related diseases or abnormal social behaviours including autism.

685 citations