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Multi-storey residential buildings and occupant’s behaviour during fire evacuation in the UK: Factors relevant to the development of evacuation strategies

09 Jul 2018-Vol. 36, Iss: 3, pp 234-253
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated human behaviour during fire evacuations in multi-storey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face and found that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology.
Abstract: Purpose - The paper aims to investigate human behaviour during fire evacuations in multistorey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face. Any variations in response behaviours that are relevant to the evacuation strategies/plans in the UK context of occupancy typical of multi-storey buildings in large cities. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review was conducted to identify the factors occupants face and also the decision-making of occupants regarding methods of egress. A mixed research method was adopted using interviews and a questionnaire survey. The findings from the interviews and survey are benchmarked against the information gathered from the literature review. Findings - The paper identifies various challenges that occupants face when evacuating a multi-storey residential building. In terms of the decision-making process, the research results evidence that occupants could be given more information on the evacuation procedures within their specific building. The paper also finds that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology. Originality/Value - This paper contributes to the body of knowledge available on the evacuation of multi-storey buildings located in large cities within the UK, outlining potential areas for future research, focused on providing an insight of the behavioural decisions made by the occupants make when evacuating a building in the event of a fire.

Summary (3 min read)

Introduction

  • Fire safety has consistently been a vital consideration when designing multi-storey buildings and, given the specific environment of such buildings, human behaviour during an evacuation process has long been considered a key factor in a successful evacuation (Proulx, 2002).
  • Past evacuations which suggests that any decisions made within the conditions are a result of a decision-making process and not based on random actions (Kuligowski, 2009) and the use of evacuation models that can predict occupant evacuation behaviour.
  • Bengtsson et al (2008) agrees that the consequences of any f ilure of a building’s fire-related technical systems and the time of the fire service’s response both become more critical in multi-storey buildings.
  • Proulx et al (2009) suggests that several factors can influence whether an occupant uses a lift for building evacuation, varying from person to person depending on the occupant’s knowledge of the egress routes and previous experiences of evacuations.

Methodology

  • To achieve the research aim both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, and both interviews and questionnaires were utilised to collect data for the research, with both adopting an essentially semi-structured approach.
  • This allowed for a more comparative approach to the analysis of the data / information gathered than would be the case with an interview or questionnaire only methodology.
  • Both the interview and questionnaire designs are discussed in more detail in the following sections.

Questionnaire design

  • Following research into questionnaire techniques and design the researchers decided on a questionnaire design comprising both open and closed questions in the manner of Fridolf and Nilsson (2012), who combined closed and open approaches within a single instrument when studying fire safety in underground rail transportation systems.
  • The questionnaire also included a section that the participants could use to comment on anything regarding the research.
  • A total of 72 people completed the questionnaire, the participants were occupants of multi-storey buildings, and were constituted as samples of individuals that had or had not been involved in a real fire evacuation situation, thereby representing two data sets to facilitate comparison.
  • The evaluation identified some questions as difficult to understand and therefore in need of simplification to ensure the relevance of any answers.
  • All of these actions were implemented to ensure the final questionnaire was clear and able to supply more relevant results.

Interview design

  • The interview method was intended to complement the questionnaire in that it focused on gathering the expertise of fire engineering experts, while the questionnaire focused on nonexperts (the occupants).
  • In each case, the behavioural outcome would differ.
  • In comparison, the non-expert sample within this research were expected to evidence relatively little knowledge (in terms of equivalency to the experts) and also be affected by the immediacy (in terms of both their environment and the perception of a possible threat) of the required decision.
  • The interviewer used such questions in combination with the scope to probe the interviewee for more in-depth knowledge in the event that their answer was no more than a ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

Data analysis

  • The questionnaire findings are presented as a series of graphs showing the occupants responses.
  • Where appropriate, the responses were analysed using the Relative Importance Index formula , as created using Microsoft Excel.
  • The occupants’ answers were inputted into Microsoft Excel and were checked thoroughly to ensure no inputting errors had occurred.
  • The interviews were conducted through an online audio conversation, and subsequently transcribed in readiness for the application of the content analysis technique.

Results, analysis and discussion

  • The purpose of this study was to explore human behaviour during a multi-storey residential fire evacuation situation, the decisions occupants make during such a situation, and their choice of egress methods.
  • The data and information gathered from the questionnaire responses and interviews was then analysed in accordance with the methodology discussed previously.
  • The process of distributing the questionnaire and then collecting data and information from the responses took approximately 2 weeks.

Questionnaire results

  • Q1. Established the age bracket of each participant, and the building floor on which they resided.
  • When the response of those occupants presented in Figure 7 that did not answer ‘evacuate immediately’, it can be shown that an alternate alarm would either definitely or probably increase 75.44% of occupants’ evacuation speed.
  • The main factors that occupants base their choice of egress method on is ‘The emergency evacuation signs’ (37.18%) and ‘the familiarity of the route’ (35.90%). .
  • These results show that ‘fire entering the stairway’ (86.87%) and ‘smoke entering the stairway’ (82.56%) are the greatest concerns of occupants when evacuating using the stairs.

Hazard Relative Importance Index Rank

  • Moreover ‘not being physically capable of walking down stairs’ (56.86%) ranked number 6 on the table.
  • Heyes (2009) research (focused on San Francisco) showed th t 55% of occupants answered ‘not at all concerned’ about not being physically fit enough to travel down many flights of stairs.
  • The researchers suspect that some occupants who state they are not concerned about being physically fit enough to walk down a high number of stairs, may assume they are in better physical condition that they actually are.

Interview results

  • Three interviews were completed with experts within the field of fire engineering, one from the UK, one from New Zealand, and one from Sweden.
  • One interview was conducted face-to-face, and the other two were conducted via an online call.
  • Question four asked what the main factors are that affect occupants’ decisions during an evacuation.
  • Interviewee 1 agreed that waiting too long for the lift to arrive can deter occupants from using a lift.
  • Interviewees 2 and 3 stated that occupants need to be more educated about both fire situation and evacuation procedures, and given more information on the use of lifts during an evacuation of a multi-storey residential building.

Conclusions

  • The research evidenced that there are various factors that discourage occupants from using certain egress routes.
  • In addition, the questionnaire results evidenced that the factors deterring occupants from using a lift are concerns of being stuck in the lift and smoke or fire entering the lift.
  • Occupants need to be thoroughly educated and clearly informed with regard to such factors.
  • There are several factors to consider that can affect occupants’ receipt of ‘threat’ cues during a fire evacuation.
  • The interviews produced results that identified culture as an important factor affecting the interpretation of the cues occupants receive; some cultures are not serious about fire alarms and will not consider an alarm as evidence of a ‘real’ fire situation.

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Article
Multi-storey residential buildings and
occupant’s behaviour during re
evacuation in the UK: Factors relevant to
the development of evacuation strategies
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International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
Multi
-
storey residential buildings and occupant’s behaviour
during fire evacuation in the UK: Factors relevant to the
development of evacuation strategies.
Journal:
International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
Manuscript ID
IJBPA-08-2017-0033.R3
Manuscript Type:
Original Article
Keywords:
evacuation, lifts, egress, human behaviour, decisions, multi-storey
International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
1
Multi-storey residential buildings and occupant’s behaviour during fire evacuation in the UK:
Factors relevant to the development of evacuation strategies.
Michael Gerges
a
, Sholto Penn
b
, David Moore
c
, Chris Boothman
d
Champika Liyanage
e
.
a
Michael Gerges, (School of Engineering, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK)
b
Sholto Penn, (School of Construction, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK)
c
David Moore, (Scott Sutherland School of Architecture and Built Environment, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK)
d
Chris Boothman (School of Engineering, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK)
e
Champika Liyanage (School of Engineering, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK)
Abstract
Purpose – T
he paper aims to investigate human behaviour during fire evacuations in multi-
storey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants
face. Any variations in response behaviours that are relevant to the evacuation
strategies/plans in the UK context of occupancy typical of multi-storey buildings in large
cities.
Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to identify the factors
occupants face and also the decision-making of occupants regarding methods of egress. A
mixed research method was adopted using interviews and a questionnaire survey. The
findings from the interviews and survey are benchmarked against the information gathered
from the literature review.
Findings – The paper identifies various challenges that occupants face when evacuating a
multi-storey residential building. In terms of the decision-making process, the research results
evidence that occupants could be given more information on the evacuation procedures
within their specific building. The paper also finds that occupants remain reluctant to use a
lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is
appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology.
Originality/Value – This paper contributes to the body of knowledge available on the
evacuation of multi-storey buildings located in large cities within the UK, outlining potential
areas for future research, focused on providing an insight of the behavioural decisions made
by the occupants make when evacuating a building in the event of a fire.
Keywords - Evacuation; lifts; egress; human behaviour; decisions; multi-storey
Introduction
Fire safety has consistently been a vital considerat
ion when designing multi-storey buildings
and, given the specific environment of such buildings, human behaviour during an evacuation
process has long been considered a key factor in a successful evacuation (Proulx, 2002).
Sekizawa et al (1999) suggested that some key factors are the method of which occupants
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International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
2
react to fire cues, the motives they are given to commence evacuating, and the choice of
evacuation route (typically choosing their usual route of moving around the building or a
route identified as being ‘safe’ rather than one that was close). While there is a considerable
body of literature relevant to the evacuation of multi-storey buildings, some of this is
inevitably dated, particularly in the context of materials development, enhancements to
existing technologies, emerging new technologies and a deeper understanding of the
psychology of human behaviour, particularly in the context of group dynamics. Ronchi and
Nilsson (2013), for example, considered not only the individual use of egress components but
also the combined use of such egress components as stairwells and elevators along with other
means of escape that would not be typically regarded as ‘traditional’ (sky-bridges,
helicopters, etc.). However, Nillson and Kinteder’s (2015) postulates that data on the
behaviour of occupants in a fire situation are generally collected using case studies is
consistent with the majority of the literature reviewed. Nillson and Kintender further suggest,
that controlled experiments can also be used to establish relationships in this context. In
addition, the use of interview techniques, as used by Shields et al (2009), appears to be a
relatively common method used in fire evacuation occupant behaviour studies.
Human behaviour within a fire has been examined through both the review of past evacuation
situations, and simulations. Past evacuations which suggests that any decisions made within
the conditions are a result of a decision-making process and not based on random actions
(Kuligowski, 2009) and the use of evacuation models that can predict occupant evacuation
behaviour. In addition to this, Proulx (2001) opines that the behaviour of the occupants will
depend on the characteristics of not only the occupant, but also the building and the fire.
Proulx (2001) further states that despite adequate fire safety systems being in place, they can
often fail due to inaccurate predictions and expectations of how occupants will behave during
a fire. Barber (2010) asserted that occupants’ behaviour differs when they class themselves as
being at ‘home’, at ‘work’ or in a social space; when occupants regard themselves as being at
‘home’ they may show a reluctance to evacuate what they perceive to be a safe space until
such point as they are sufficiently motivated by a perception of being directly threatened by a
fire.
Using stairs as the only route of egress during a fire can lower the evacuation speed as well as
tire the occupants especially the elderly and sick (Chen et al 2014). This theory is supported
by Heyes (2009) who explains that during an evacuation of a multi-storey building, using
only stairs can be impractical due to the ageing population and obesity problems within the
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International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
3
UK. To improve this problem, lifts have been proposed and used as methods of egress in
multi-storey buildings. Galea (2014) suggests that past studies show that building evacuation
speed can be increased by 50% through the combination of lifts and stairs. However, this
figure is based on an assumption that if lifts are available then they will actually be used by
occupants as a means of egress during an evacuation. This assumption can be dangerous, as
Noordermeer (2010) suggests that various factors must also be considered such as how
people respond to an emergency, how they interpret the information and directions given and
will the fire escapes be used for the intended purposes.
This paper will examine the possible behavioural decisions occupants could make when
evacuating a building. The Grenfell disaster exemplifies how occupants behaviour can be
affected by their interpretation of the evacuation instructions received when they are in a
situation of interpreting such instructions without any ‘expert’ or authoritative input (such as
they may rely on when being ‘marshalled’ out of a work environment) within their own
homes that contain items of both financial and emotional value (LeGood, 2017). A further
consideration is one that some may regard as being ‘sensitive’ (a possibility that may explain
the relative lack of data and research in this area) is the nature of occupancy in multi-storey
buildings typical of large UK cities. Whilst it is fully acknowledged that relevant and reliable
data is scarce, fires such as that at Grenfell Tower have raised awareness of the possible
extent of cultural diversity present in such buildings (Bulman, 2017). Therefore, the aim of
this research is to explore perspectives on human behaviour during a fire evacuation of a
multi-storey residential buildings in the UK.
Fire safety in multi-storey buildings
High rise buildings are complex and therefore requir
e extensive fire safety measures to be
incorporated when designing the building. Heffelmire (2016) states that a key challenge for
providing fire safety in a multi-storey building is ensuring that all fire safety systems such as
alarms, smoke control and egress systems can sufficiently work together in an integrated
system manner. Bengtsson et al (2008) agrees that the consequences of any failure of a
building’s fire-related technical systems and the time of the fire service’s response both
become more critical in multi-storey buildings. As such buildings have tended to become
ever-taller the challenges presented to both the fire service (such as insufficient reach of fire
ladders in 2017 the longest reach ‘ladder’ in the UK (the Ariel Ladder Platform) had a
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Citations
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01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the underlying pathogens that clients and contractors perceive to contribute to disputes in construction projects, which can provide an ameliorated understanding of the origin of disputes and therefore enable their prevention.
Abstract: Purpose – While a considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated about dispute causation, disputes continue to prevail and disharmonise the process of construction with considerable cost. This paper seeks to identify the underlying pathogens that clients and contractors perceive to contribute to disputes in construction projects. The identification of pathogens can provide an ameliorated understanding of the origin of disputes and therefore enable their prevention.Design/methodology/approach – Case law and focus groups with a client and contracting organisation from Western Australia are used to determine the pathogens of disputes.Findings – Analysis of the case law findings revealed that the underlying issues that were brought to litigation were to do with points of law, namely “civil procedure”. A significant number of disputes are thus settled using alternative dispute resolution methods such as adjudication, arbitration and mediation. For clients the underlying latent conditions that resulted i...

107 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fire emergency management system (FEMS) that considers the behavior decisions of building users (behaviors such as escape, wait for rescue, and fire extinguishing) is built and the moving distance of the Test Group equipped with FEMS is 30% shorter than the Control Group, and the total time spent is reduced by 48%.

40 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
30 Aug 2017-Innovait
TL;DR: This paper argued that failure to learn is a large obstacle to progress and pointed out that failure is an acquired trait and not something we are born with, and that we should not expect to be perfect first time.
Abstract: Black Box Thinking challenges the culture, sadly present in medicine, that when mistakes occur fingers of blame must be pointed. Mistakes have a ‘signature pattern’, but one of the tragedies in medicine is how a closed minded and defensive approach stops change that may prevent recurrent errors. This book emphasises how failure to learn is a large obstacle to progress. It also raises the important topic of ‘cognitive dissonance’, and how when a mistake is presented clearly to us, the need to ‘save face’ impedes development. This book would be of benefit to a wide variety of people, not just GPs and other allied healthcare professionals. It challenges the reader to view errors as opportunities to learn rather than apportion blame, and to be open minded about changing ineffective processes. Syed makes the point that we learn from actively doing things; that we learn from action. He also makes the point that young children do not have a fear of failure; the fear of failure is an acquired trait and not something we are born with. As clinicians, we talk about children progressing through developmental milestones. Children don’t fear falling over when trying to walk, they try walking and when they fall, get back up again, carry on and learn from it. We learn more by actively doing tasks ‘bottom-up’ in real life, rather than from ‘top-down’ theory. We learn by practising skills and we should therefore not expect to be perfect first time. Syed discusses the story of how David Beckham continuously practised his footballing skills, kicking a football many thousands of times, learning from each attempt, before moving onto a new skill. In business, Sir James Dyson made thousands of refinements before patenting his vacuum cleaner (that made him a multi-billionaire), each iteration learning from the former to make improvements before arriving at the end product. The key point, illustrated by these examples, is that we must practise many times, and learn from each attempt, refining and re-iterating, reflecting on what went well and what didn’t, before we progress towards mastery of a skill. This is true not only in sport or business, but in medicine; as clinicians, we must be prepared to learn from each clinical encounter as we gain competency.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focused on investigating fire emergency evacuation procedures for differently-abled people in high-rise buildings, and highlighted the main gaps in the evacuation procedures and improvements required.
Abstract: The incidence of disability is increasing globally over the past decades. Despite the increased proportion of disabled individuals, established fire emergency evacuation procedures for disabled in high-rise buildings are lacking attention. Hence, this paper aims to focus on investigating fire emergency evacuation procedures for differently-abled people in high-rise buildings.,To address the gap, the case study strategy under the qualitative research approach was deployed by focussing 10 high-rise buildings. Data collected through semi-structured interviews and document reviews were analysed using content analysis.,The study findings revealed that even though a fire disaster is a major area to be considered, there is a noticeable gap in legal requirements related to differently-abled fire evacuation in Sri Lanka compared to the global context. Moreover, it was identified that importance given to differently enabled fire evacuations procedures varied based on the type of high-rise facilities in which hospitals and hotels provided more importance compared to office buildings, apartments and shopping complexes. Further, the study has highlighted the main gaps in the evacuation procedures and improvements required. Lack of imposed regulations for disabled evacuation was identified as a major barrier hindering the development of effective fire evacuation procedures for disabled, which creates a cascading effect. Further, the consideration given to legal, organisational, individual and technological factors would assist in straightening the identified issues.,This research provides a clear insight into the necessity of focussing at disabled individuals when developing fire emergency procedures. Most importantly, this study had exposed the current gaps in fire emergency evacuation procedures for the disabled community. Understanding these gaps is of high value for industry practitioners to ensure disabled safety during a fire emergency.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-ability population simulation in a 26-story residential building was used to evaluate the impact of evacuation strategies on the evacuation time and evacuation time of a mixedability population.
Abstract: The increasing growth of high-rise residential buildings in recent years and the existence of hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and terrorist incidents have increased the importance of evacuating buildings to save lives. Meanwhile, statistics show that a significant percentage of the population and hence residents of buildings are permanently disabled. However, the study of the evacuation of a mixed-ability population is more complicated than a homogeneous population. This study examined phased evacuation, emplacement strategy, and ramp installation using a mixed-ability population simulation in a 26-story residential building. The study population includes 2% of people with mobility limitations and 98% without disabilities. Unlike previous studies, the results revealed that phased evacuation could not reduce evacuation time in a mixed-ability population. It was also found that emplacement strategies could shorten the evacuation time by up to 10%, though suffering from an ethical problem. Meanwhile, combining ramp installation with others strategies offered the best and broadest impact on a safe evacuation and could improve evacuation time by up to 30% and reduce congestion on exit routes.

5 citations

References
More filters
Book Chapter
28 Apr 2004
TL;DR: The comprehensive and accessible nature of this collection will make it an essential and lasting handbook for researchers and students studying organizations.
Abstract: Essential Guide to Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research is an excellent resource for students and researchers in the areas of organization studies, management research and organizational psychology, bringing together in one volume the range of methods available for undertaking qualitative data collection and analysis. The volume includes 30 chapters, each focusing on a specific technique. The chapters cover traditional research methods, analysis techniques, and interventions as well as the latest developments in the field. Each chapter reviews how the method has been used in organizational research, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using the method, and presents a case study example of the method in use. A list of further reading is supplied for those requiring additional information about a given method. The comprehensive and accessible nature of this collection will make it an essential and lasting handbook for researchers and students studying organizations.

16,383 citations

01 Jan 2001

14,106 citations


"Multi-storey residential buildings ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The altruistic aspect of evacuation behaviours has been known about for some time (the social categorisation theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979) and the social identity model (Reicher, 1987) of crowd behaviour, for example, identified not only altruism but also self-sacrifice) and yet the expectation of panic remains a common belief....

    [...]

  • ...The altruistic aspect of evacuation behaviours has been known about for some time (the social categorisation theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979) and the social identity model (Reicher, 1987) of crowd behaviour, for example, identified not only altruism but also self-sacrifice) and yet the expectation…...

    [...]

Book
22 Nov 2017
TL;DR: The Fourth Edition of Andy Field's Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 4th Edition focuses on providing essential content updates, better accessibility to key features, more instructor resources, and more content specific to select disciplines.
Abstract: Unrivalled in the way it makes the teaching of statistics compelling and accessible to even the most anxious of students, the only statistics textbook you and your students will ever need just got better! Andy Field's comprehensive and bestselling Discovering Statistics Using SPSS 4th Edition takes students from introductory statistical concepts through very advanced concepts, incorporating SPSS throughout. The Fourth Edition focuses on providing essential content updates, better accessibility to key features, more instructor resources, and more content specific to select disciplines. It also incorporates powerful new digital developments on the textbook's companion website(visit sagepub.com for more information). WebAssign The Fourth Edition will be available on WebAssign, allowing instructors to produce and manage assignments with their studnets online using a grade book that allows them to track and monitor students' progress. Students receive unlimited practice using a combination of approximately 2000 multiple choice and algorithmic questions. WebAssign provided students with instant feedback and links directly to the accompanying eBook section where the concept was covered, allowing students to find the correct solution. SAGE MobileStudy SAGE MobileStudy allows students equipped with smartphones and tablets to access select material, such as Cramming Sam's Study Tips, anywhere they receive mobile service. With QR codes included throughout the text, it's easy for students to get right to the section they need to study, allowing them to continue their study from virtually anywhere, even when they are away from thier printed copy of the text. Click here to preview the MobileStudy site (available late spring 2013). Education and Sport Sciences instructor support materials with enhanced ones for Psychology, Business and Management and the Health sciences make the book even more relevant to a wider range of subjects across the social sciences and where statistics is taught to a cross-disciplinary audience. Major Updates to the 4th Edition Fully compatible with recent SPSS releases up to and including version 20.0 Exciting new characters, including statistical cult leader Oditi, who provides students access to interesting and helpful video clips to illustrate statistical and SPSS concepts, and Confusious, who helps students clarify confusing quantitative terminology New discipline specific support matierlas have been added for Education, Sports Sciences, Psychology, Business & Management, and Health Sciences, making the book even more relevant to a wider range of subjects across the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences is taught to an interdisciplinary audience. An enhanced Companion Website (available late spring 2013) offers a wealth of material that can be used in conjunction with the textbook, including: PowerPoints Testbanks Answers to the Smart Alex tasks at the end of each chapter Datafiles for testing problems in SPSS Flashcards of key concepts Self-assessment multiple-choice questions Online videos of key statistical and SPSS procedures

10,316 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the “case” under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation.
Abstract: Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing and implementing qualitative case study research projects. An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the “case” under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation. To facilitate application of these principles, clear examples of research questions, study propositions and the different types of case study designs

7,611 citations

01 Jan 2009

7,296 citations


"Multi-storey residential buildings ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Yin (2009), Kumar (2014) and Saunders et al. (2015) concur and postulate that a semi-structured interview is the most efficient method of interview through the use of focussed questions....

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