Multicasting Over 6G Non-Terrestrial Networks: A Softwarization-Based Approach
01 Mar 2023-IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine (IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine)-Vol. 18, Iss: 1, pp 91-99
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors evaluate the potential of using the softwarization paradigm in the heterogeneous terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks (NTN) architecture to deliver multicast services.
Abstract: Multicast/broadcast delivery is a critical challenge of future 6G mobile networks where massive Internet of Things (IoT) deployment and extended reality multimedia such as teleportation are target application scenarios. Non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) are considered essential for the success of 6G, which aims to provide true “global” services by extending mobile access worldwide, thus overcoming the coverage limit of current terrestrial networks (TNs). This article discusses how the main distinguishing features of NTNs can be effectively exploited for 6G multicasting. Furthermore, in line with the evolution of future 6G networks toward softwarized systems, we evaluate the potential of using the softwarization paradigm in the heterogeneous TN–NTN architecture to deliver multicast services.
TL;DR: In this paper , the reverse shortest path tree (RSPT) was proposed to detect the load status of multicast paths in case of routing asymmetry, which can effectively balance the network load in the case of asymmetric routing.
Abstract: Network layer multicast is a powerful method for transmitting data from sources to multiple group members. When joining a multicast group, a group member first sends a request to a designated router (DR). Then, the DR selects a node in the existing multicast tree (known as a multicast joining node, or MJN) to establish a multicast distribution path from the MJN to itself. The MJN selection method runs on the DR and has a significant impact on the distribution of the multicast tree, that directly affects the load distribution in the network. However, the current MJN selection method cannot effectively detect the load status of the downlink multicast path in the case of asymmetric routing, leading to network congestion and limiting the number of multicast groups that the network can accommodate (multicast capacity). To solve this problem, we propose an MJN selection method based on the reverse shortest path tree (RSPT). RSPT can effectively detect the load status of downlink multicast paths in case of routing asymmetry. Based on the detection results of RSPT, DR can select the MJN with the lowest path load to join the multicast tree. Our experimental results indicate that compared to existing multicast methods, our method has a lower cost and delay, and can effectively balance the network load in the case of asymmetric routing, increasing multicast capacity by more than two times.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors focus on the technological perspectives of 6G multicasting, highlighting requirements, challenges, and enabling solutions, and run a simulation campaign to test practical solutions.
Abstract: The shift towards 6G networks is expected to be accompanied by an increased capability to support group-oriented services, such as extended reality and holographic communications, in many different contexts, from high-precision manufacturing to healthcare and remote control. This range of applications will rely heavily on multicast and mixed multicast-broadcast delivery modes. This article focuses on the technological perspectives of 6G multicasting, highlighting requirements, challenges, and enabling solutions. We then run a simulation campaign to test practical solutions and draw conclusive remarks for forthcoming 6G multicast systems.
TL;DR: This article presents a large-dimensional and autonomous network architecture that integrates space, air, ground, and underwater networks to provide ubiquitous and unlimited wireless connectivity and identifies several promising technologies for the 6G ecosystem.
Abstract: A key enabler for the intelligent information society of 2030, 6G networks are expected to provide performance superior to 5G and satisfy emerging services and applications. In this article, we present our vision of what 6G will be and describe usage scenarios and requirements for multi-terabyte per second (Tb/s) and intelligent 6G networks. We present a large-dimensional and autonomous network architecture that integrates space, air, ground, and underwater networks to provide ubiquitous and unlimited wireless connectivity. We also discuss artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning ,  for autonomous networks and innovative air-interface design. Finally, we identify several promising technologies for the 6G ecosystem, including terahertz (THz) communications, very-large-scale antenna arrays [i.e., supermassive (SM) multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO)], large intelligent surfaces (LISs) and holographic beamforming (HBF), orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing, laser and visible-light communications (VLC), blockchain-based spectrum sharing, quantum communications and computing, molecular communications, and the Internet of Nano-Things.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a full-stack, system-level perspective on 6G scenarios and requirements, and select 6G technologies that can satisfy them either by improving the 5G design or by introducing completely new communication paradigms.
Abstract: Reliable data connectivity is vital for the ever increasingly intelligent, automated, and ubiquitous digital world. Mobile networks are the data highways and, in a fully connected, intelligent digital world, will need to connect everything, including people to vehicles, sensors, data, cloud resources, and even robotic agents. Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks, which are currently being deployed, offer significant advances beyond LTE, but may be unable to meet the full connectivity demands of the future digital society. Therefore, this article discusses technologies that will evolve wireless networks toward a sixth generation (6G) and which we consider as enablers for several potential 6G use cases. We provide a fullstack, system-level perspective on 6G scenarios and requirements, and select 6G technologies that can satisfy them either by improving the 5G design or by introducing completely new communication paradigms.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review and updated solutions related to 5G network slicing using SDN and NFV, and a discussion on various open source orchestrators and proof of concepts representing industrial contribution are provided.
TL;DR: The present article proposes the joint use of subgrouping multicast techniques and NOMA in an eMBMS-like scenario, and performance is evaluated in envisaged 5G environments, where different quality video services are delivered to a group of users interested in the same contents.
Abstract: The expected growth in mobile video demand over broadband cellular networks is one of the key factors driving the wireless industry to develop the fifth generation of network technology. This scenario is fueling the need for group-oriented services (i.e., multicast and broadcast) in order to efficiently manage the radio resources, and consequently grant different groups of users simultaneous access to the same multimedia content with differentiated quality of service. The evolved multimedia broadcast multicast service (eMBMS), standardized by the Third Generation Partnership Project, is one of the technologies likely to be extended to 5G systems with the aim of addressing point-to-multipoint services. In addition, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) techniques are also being considered as a driver to increase the efficient use of the spectrum in multi-user environments with asymmetric data delivery. The present article proposes the joint use of subgrouping multicast techniques and NOMA in an eMBMS-like scenario. Performance is evaluated in envisaged 5G environments, where different quality video services are delivered to a group of users interested in the same contents.
TL;DR: A performance evaluation of several IMT-2020 KPIs, including available data rate and spectral efficiency, user and control plane latencies, energy efficiency, and mobility are provided, highlighting the potential advantages of this solution over unicast in relevant scenarios.
Abstract: This work presents a potential solution for enabling the use of multicast in the 5G New Radio Release 17, called 5G NR Mixed Mode. The proposed multicast/broadcast mode follows one of the two approaches envisaged in 3GPP, which enables a dynamic and seamless switching between unicast and multicast, both in the downlink and the uplink. This paper also provides a performance evaluation of several IMT-2020 KPIs, including available data rate and spectral efficiency, user and control plane latencies, energy efficiency, and mobility, highlighting the potential advantages of this solution over unicast in relevant scenarios. Finally, other multipoint–based KPIs such as coverage or packet loss rate are also evaluated by means of system level simulations.
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