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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Multichannel digital watermarking of color images using SVD

TL;DR: The proposed method demonstrates that color image watermarking is possible without affecting its visual quality and also allows for reasonable compromise between robustness and invisibility of watermarks.
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new invisible, non-blind digital watermarking scheme for color images based on singular vector domain (SVD). In this new approach, same or different watermarks can be embedded into the three color channels (R, G, B) of the host image in order to increase the robustness of the watermark. The proposed method demonstrates that color image watermarking is possible without affecting its visual quality and also allows for reasonable compromise between robustness and invisibility of watermarks. This research, based on our earlier work, consists of embedding a gray watermark into a gray host and a color watermark into a color host based on the singular vector domain. The main feature of our scheme is to use all channels of RGB color space to embed watermarks. Hence we are embedding maximum amount of watermark and also make it more secure. The other feature of our scheme is that it can be used for a variety of applications since we can perform single channel embedding to multichannel embedding. We then show our simulation results for one channel, two channel and three channel and also results for how it behaves under various attacks.
Citations
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01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed and simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.
Abstract: A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed. The color components are uncorrelated using principle component analysis. The watermark is embedded into the singular values of discrete wavelet transformed sub-band associated with principle component containing most of the color information. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, rotation, Gaussian noise, scaling, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, median filtering, affine transformation, translation, salt & pepper, sharpening), to check robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with state-of-the-art existing color watermarking schemes using normalized correlation coefficient and peak signal to noise ratio. The simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

23 citations


Cites methods from "Multichannel digital watermarking o..."

  • ...The quality of watermarking scheme is primarily based on two conflicting requirements, robustness (measured using normalized correlation coefficient (NC)) and imperceptibility (measured using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR)) [1], [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2020
TL;DR: Results of simulations show that the proposed DIW scheme not only satisfies the need for invisibility but also has better or comparable robustness as compared to other recently published watermarking methods.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel digital image watermarking (DIW) scheme. This DIW scheme is based on a hybrid DWT-SVD transform domain and modified whale optimization algorithm (MWOA), making use of multiscale factors (MSFs) to control the trade-off between invisibility and robustness. The values of MSFs have been determined using MWOA, which is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm inspired by the bubble-net hunting strategy of humpback whales. The essential feature of modified WOA is that it provides a global solution and also requires less internal parameters for optimization. Normalized cross-correlation and peak signal to noise ratio are utilized in the objective function design. Results of simulations show that the proposed DIW scheme not only satisfies the need for invisibility but also has better or comparable robustness as compared to other recently published watermarking methods.

12 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Dec 2012
TL;DR: A robust color image watermarking scheme is proposed, in which a color watermark is embedded into a color image, and which was tested against various attacks to check the robustness and imperceptible.
Abstract: A robust color image watermarking scheme is proposed, in which a color watermark is embedded into a color image. Principle component analysis is used to uncorrelate the R, G and B channels of both the images. Each channel of color watermark is embedded into singular values of corresponding channel of cover image after discrete wavelet decomposition. As original image is required at the time of extraction of watermark so given scheme is non-blind. Peak signal to noise ratio is used to measure the imperceptibility whereas similarity between original and extracted watermark is measured using normalized correlation coefficient. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, Gaussian noise, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, affine transformation, salt & pepper), to check the robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with existing color watermarking schemes. The results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

10 citations


Cites background or methods from "Multichannel digital watermarking o..."

  • ...The quality of watermarking scheme is primarily based on two conflicting requirements, robustness (measured using normalized correlation coefficient (NC)) and imperceptibility (measured using peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR)) [1], [10]....

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  • ...Most of the image watermarking schemes are applicable [3] for gray level images [2], [4] [7], [8], and some schemes are related to color images [1], [3] [5], [6], [9], [10], [12]-[16]....

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Book ChapterDOI
15 Jun 2019
TL;DR: Comparison of the different watermarking techniques employing the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is given and various details of the algorithm of digital image watermark embedding and extraction process in a different domain are presented.
Abstract: Digital image watermarking is one of the most discussed research areas. It plays an essential role in the field of digital information authentication and security. Based on the study of watermarking systems, image watermarking is divided into two modules: One is watermark embedding, and the other is watermark extraction. This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental analysis and performance measurement of a representative digital image watermarking system in spatial and transforms domains. The key characteristics of a digital image watermarking scheme are robustness, capacity, imperceptibility, the security of the hiding place, and false positive of the watermarking algorithm. Comparison of the different watermarking techniques employing the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is given. This paper presents various details of the algorithm of digital image watermark embedding and extraction process in a different domain and also explains their advantages and disadvantages.

5 citations

Book ChapterDOI
25 Mar 2017
TL;DR: A review of such computerized watermarking procedures and techniques like discrete wavelet transform (DWT), singular value decomposition (SVD), discrete cosine transformation (DCT) with various methodologies alongside their applications, advantages and limitations.
Abstract: Digital watermarking is fragile to different authorization and copyright protection in spatial domain, So in the vast majority of watermarking strategy’s transform domain is utilized. In that paper we have an review of such computerized watermarking procedures and techniques like discrete wavelet transform (DWT), singular value decomposition (SVD), discrete cosine transformation (DCT) with various methodologies alongside their applications, advantages and limitations.

4 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations and common geometric transformations provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image.
Abstract: This paper presents a secure (tamper-resistant) algorithm for watermarking images, and a methodology for digital watermarking that may be generalized to audio, video, and multimedia data. We advocate that a watermark should be constructed as an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gaussian random vector that is imperceptibly inserted in a spread-spectrum-like fashion into the perceptually most significant spectral components of the data. We argue that insertion of a watermark under this regime makes the watermark robust to signal processing operations (such as lossy compression, filtering, digital-analog and analog-digital conversion, requantization, etc.), and common geometric transformations (such as cropping, scaling, translation, and rotation) provided that the original image is available and that it can be successfully registered against the transformed watermarked image. In these cases, the watermark detector unambiguously identifies the owner. Further, the use of Gaussian noise, ensures strong resilience to multiple-document, or collusional, attacks. Experimental results are provided to support these claims, along with an exposition of pending open problems.

6,194 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1999
TL;DR: The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed water marking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media.
Abstract: Multimedia watermarking technology has evolved very quickly during the last few years. A digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it cannot be removed. A watermark typically contains information about the origin, status, or recipient of the host data. In this tutorial paper, the requirements and applications for watermarking are reviewed. Applications include copyright protection, data monitoring, and data tracking. The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed watermarking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media. Robustness and security aspects are discussed in detail. Finally, a few remarks are made about the state of the art and possible future developments in watermarking technology.

1,447 citations


"Multichannel digital watermarking o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The proposed method demonstrates that color image watermarking is possible without affecting its visual quality and also allows for reasonable compromise between robustness and invisibility of watermarks....

    [...]

Proceedings ArticleDOI
04 Oct 1998
TL;DR: A new method for digital image watermarking which does not require the original image for watermark detection is presented and features improved resistance to attacks on the watermark, implicit visual masking utilizing the time-frequency localization property of the wavelet transform and a robust definition for the threshold which validates the watermarks.
Abstract: A new method for digital image watermarking which does not require the original image for watermark detection is presented. Assuming that we are using a transform domain spread spectrum watermarking scheme, it is important to add the watermark in select coefficients with significant image energy in the transform domain in order to ensure non-erasability of the watermark. Previous methods, which did not use the original in the detection process, could not selectively add the watermark to the significant coefficients, since the locations of such selected coefficients can change due to image manipulations. Since watermark verification typically consists of a process of correlation which is extremely sensitive to the relative order in which the watermark coefficients are placed within the image, such changes in the location of the watermarked coefficients was unacceptable. We present a scheme which overcomes this problem of "order sensitivity". Advantages of the proposed method include (i) improved resistance to attacks on the watermark, (ii) implicit visual masking utilizing the time-frequency localization property of the wavelet transform and (iii) a robust definition for the threshold which validates the watermark. We present results comparing our method with previous techniques, which clearly validate our claims.

307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This poster presents a poster presenting a probabilistic procedure for estimating the response of the immune system to laser-spot assisted treatment of central nervous system injuries.
Abstract: Keywords: LTS1 Reference LTS-ARTICLE-1998-011doi:10.1117/1.482648View record in Web of Science Record created on 2006-06-14, modified on 2016-08-08

270 citations


"Multichannel digital watermarking o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Keywords— Digital watermarking, Color image, RGB, SVD, Multichannel watermarking....

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  • ...The other feature of our scheme is that it can be used for a variety of applications since we can perform single channel embedding to multichannel embedding....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From extensive experiments, results indicate that the proposed cocktail watermarking scheme is remarkably effective in resisting various attacks, including combined ones.
Abstract: A novel image protection scheme called "cocktail watermarking" is proposed in this paper. We analyze and point out the inadequacy of the modulation techniques commonly used in ordinary spread spectrum watermarking methods and the visual model-based ones. To resolve the inadequacy, two watermarks which play complementary roles are simultaneously embedded into a host image. We also conduct a statistical analysis to derive the lower bound of the worst likelihood that the better watermark (out of the two) can be extracted. With this "high" lower bound, it is ensured that a "better" extracted watermark is always obtained. From extensive experiments, results indicate that our cocktail watermarking scheme is remarkably effective in resisting various attacks, including combined ones.

226 citations


"Multichannel digital watermarking o..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Kutter et al. [9] proposed an algorithm based on embedding a watermark by modifying a selected set of pixel values in the blue component of the color image....

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