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Journal ArticleDOI

Multidisciplinary approach to assess the water self-depuration characteristics of Suquía River (Córdoba, Argentina)

03 Sep 2014-Revista Chilena de Historia Natural (BioMed Central)-Vol. 87, Iss: 1, pp 1-13

AbstractWe analyzed the following characteristics of water self-depuration capacity along a polluted river (Suquia River) in Argentina: (a) abundance of microbial metabolic groups, (b) cover and type of vegetation, and (c) type and concentration of soil and sediment humic substances. The objective was to establish the modifications of water self-depuration characteristics of the polluted sites in comparison to a reference site in order to provide basic data for ecological restoration programs. Five samples of riparian soil, water, and sediments were collected at a reference site and five polluted sites during low- and high-flow water periods. In each site the vegetation type and soil cover were recorded. In all samples the abundance of ammonifiers, nitrate reducers, sulfate reducers, cellulolytic microorganisms, aerobic heterotrophs, and fermenters was measured. Besides, soil and sediment organic matter and humic and fulvic acids content were analyzed. Our results showed that all sites differed in their water self-depuration characteristics with respect to the reference site and that these variations are due to a combination of natural and anthropic factors. The Suquia River presents a great heterogeneity of water self-depuration characteristics but it does not achieve a mitigation of the anthropogenic impact produced by Cordoba city. We concluded that restoration actions in lotic ecosystems should be adapted for each river sector.

Topics: Riparian zone (53%), Vegetation (51%), River ecosystem (51%), Vegetation type (50%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed the presence of contaminants along the studied river and the ability of C. largillierti to bioaccumulate them, and suggest this species as an useful bioindicator of aquatic pollution.
Abstract: The endobenthic bivalves are widely used as a bioindicators since they inhabit the sediment-water interface and are able to accumulate a different kind of contaminants In the present work, we evaluated wild Corbicula largillierti (Phillippi, 1844) as a bioindicator of water quality in the central region of Argentina The responses at different levels of the biological organization were used We measured organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in water and clams tissues The biomarkers selected were enzymatic activities (Glutathione S-Transferase, Catalase, Acetyl-, Butyryl-cholinesterase, and Carboxylesterase) morphometry of the digestive gland, condition index and morphology of valves In order to integrate all the responses a multivariate analysis and integrated stress index were applied Our results showed the presence of contaminants along the studied river and the ability of C largillierti to bioaccumulate them All the biomarkers selected varied according to the water quality gradient, although there was no specific correlation with OCPs and PCBs levels At the most polluted sites, the detoxification and oxidative stress enzymes, the morphometric analysis of the digestive gland and the variation in the morphology of the valves indicated the water quality degradation The multivariate analyses allowed to discriminate the sites according to the different biomarker responses The IBR index also showed a variation pattern according to the environmental quality gradient along the basin According to the responses shown by C largillierti we suggest this species as an useful bioindicator of aquatic pollution

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Suquia River, the largest urban river in Cordoba (Argentina), has been severely polluted for decades. Actions must be taken to restore its environmental quality by managing riparian zones for increased water-self purification. The current study aimed to characterize organic matter (OM) dynamics and humic substances (HS) spectrochemical properties along the lower-middle basin of the Suquia River. Riparian soil (0–20 cm) and sediment (0–10 cm) samples were collected from a reference location (S1) and four polluted sites (S2–S5) during a low-flow period. The contents of soil and sedimentary OM and HS fractions were analyzed by wet oxidation, as well as HS Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrochemical properties. The OM and HS fractions from riparian soil were high upstream of Cordoba City (S1 and S2, 50.2–50.4 g/kg OM) and within a 50 km downstream location (S5, 30.9 g/kg OM) owing to a surplus of fresh plant biomass-carbon (C) inputs. Highly heterogeneous sediment samples did not show any significant differences among sites (P > 0.05). The lowest values of the ratio of absorbances at 465 and 665 nm (E4/E6) (1.78) and the Δ log K (0.15) coefficient (a measure of HS maturity degree) were obtained downstream of Cordoba City, for both riparian soil and sediment, indicating that HS were enriched by more condensed aromatic structures within highly degraded portions of the river. All samples exhibited similar IR spectra, implying overlapping recalcitrant-C structures at the functional group level, but with different absorbance intensity. Data from the current study constitute a baseline for understanding the chemical nature of HS from sediment and riparian soil along the Suquia River and can be used as a reference for future studies tracking OM compositional changes over time.

5 citations


References
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Book ChapterDOI
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8,397 citations


"Multidisciplinary approach to asses..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For each riparian soil and sediment sample, we measured total organic matter (OM) by the wet method of Walkley and Black (Nelson and Sommers 1996) and the humic substances content (HS) by alkali extraction (NaOH)....

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"Multidisciplinary approach to asses..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...By contrast, the low abundance of nitrate-reducer in Suquía River has been observed by Reyna et al. (2010), suggesting a strong competition with plants, algae, and other microorganisms for nitrate (Wetzel 2001)....

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  • ...(2010), suggesting a strong competition with plants, algae, and other microorganisms for nitrate (Wetzel 2001)....

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  • ...The ecology of riparian vegetation is substantial for water self-depuration due to their great capacity to take up nutrients, thus avoiding eutrophication of the aquatic ecosystem (Wetzel 2001; Barton and Northup 2011)....

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  • ...The increases of sediment and soil OM fractions at RS in high-flow period would reflect major deposition and retention due to the high OM residues transported by water in this period (Wetzel 2001)....

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  • ...The dynamics of microbial metabolic groups at RS agree with numerous studies which indicate that part of the degradation is carried out quickly in the water by aerobic microorganisms and the other in soil and sediment with a predominance of anaerobic bacteria (Wetzel 2001; Dzyuban 2003; Dzyuban 2005; Amalfitano et al. 2008)....

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2,037 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to biodegradation of lignocelluloses and the development of the bioprocessing potential of cellulolytic microorganisms might effectively be accomplished with recombinant DNA technology.
Abstract: In view of rising prices of crude oil due to increasing fuel demands, the need for alternative sources of bioenergy is expected to increase sharply in the coming years. Among potential alternative bioenergy resources, lignocellulosics have been identified as the prime source of biofuels and other value-added products. Lignocelluloses as agricultural, industrial and forest residuals account for the majority of the total biomass present in the world. To initiate the production of industrially important products from cellulosic biomass, bioconversion of the cellulosic components into fermentable sugars is necessary. A variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi may have the ability to degrade the cellulosic biomass to glucose monomers. Bacterial cellulases exist as discrete multi-enzyme complexes, called cellulosomes that consist of multiple subunits. Cellulolytic enzyme systems from the filamentous fungi, especially Trichoderma reesei, contain two exoglucanases or cellobiohydrolases (CBH1 and CBH2), at least four endoglucanases (EG1, EG2, EG3, EG5), and one β-glucosidase. These enzymes act synergistically to catalyse the hydrolysis of cellulose. Different physical parameters such as pH, temperature, adsorption, chemical factors like nitrogen, phosphorus, presence of phenolic compounds and other inhibitors can critically influence the bioconversion of lignocellulose. The production of cellulases by microbial cells is governed by genetic and biochemical controls including induction, catabolite repression, or end product inhibition. Several efforts have been made to increase the production of cellulases through strain improvement by mutagenesis. Various physical and chemical methods have been used to develop bacterial and fungal strains producing higher amounts of cellulase, all with limited success. Cellulosic bioconversion is a complex process and requires the synergistic action of the three enzymatic components consisting of endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases. The co-cultivation of microbes in fermentation can increase the quantity of the desirable components of the cellulase complex. An understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to biodegradation of lignocelluloses and the development of the bioprocessing potential of cellulolytic microorganisms might effectively be accomplished with recombinant DNA technology. For instance, cloning and sequencing of the various cellulolytic genes could economize the cellulase production process. Apart from that, metabolic engineering and genomics approaches have great potential for enhancing our understanding of the molecular mechanism of bioconversion of lignocelluloses to value added economically significant products in the future.

1,022 citations