# Multidisciplinary design of the wing for aircraft preliminary design purposes

01 Jan 2021-Vol. 1024, Iss: 1, pp 012045

TL;DR: In this paper, an aerodynamic and wing structure is investigated by low-fidelity methods using Bell-shaped lift distribution, which leads to lower aerodynamic drag than elliptical lift distribution for a given lift force and root bending moment.

Abstract: In this paper, an aerodynamic and wing structure is investigated by low-fidelity methods Bell-shaped lift distribution was rediscovered in the last decade as a perspective alternative to traditional wing design This leads to lower aerodynamic drag than elliptical lift distribution for a given lift force and root bending moment Root bending moment is used as a surrogate model of wing structure weight It is relatively raw simplification introduced by Prandtl to estimate the weight of the spar as a main part of the wing structure For a more accurate wing weight estimation, the main parts of the wing are dimensioned under CS-23 regulation in this work The design procedure starts with defining the elementary parameters of the wing shape (chord/twist distribution, wingspan) After geometry generating a non-linear lifting line is used to calculate aerodynamic characteristics for all regime, determined from the flight envelope The dimensions of a spar, ribs and skin are calculated in the next step of the procedure for given bending moment, load and torque moment distribution The structure of the wing is assumed as a two-spar, manufactured by aluminum A target of design is to find out the shape of the wing for given weight The solution is verified by CFD calculation

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29 Aug 1995TL;DR: Using a practical approach, this book discusses two-level factorial and fractional factorial designs, several aspects of empirical modeling with regression techniques, focusing on response surface methodology, mixture experiments and robust design techniques.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
Using a practical approach, it discusses two-level factorial and fractional factorial designs, several aspects of empirical modeling with regression techniques, focusing on response surface methodology, mixture experiments and robust design techniques. Features numerous authentic application examples and problems. Illustrates how computers can be a useful aid in problem solving. Includes a disk containing computer programs for a response surface methodology simulation exercise and concerning mixtures.

10,104 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an extension of Hooke's Law for determining the stability under stress of thin shells of isotropic elastic material, which they use to determine the equilibrium of an elementary volume of the substance by considering the forces acting upon it.

Abstract: The object of the present paper is to derive equations that are adequate to decide questions of the stability under stress of thin shells of isotropic elastic material. Equations for the same purpose have been given by R. V. Southwell, who used a method that is closely followed in a part of this paper. Such equations must contain terms that may be, and are, neglected in applications of the theory of elasticity to problems in which the stability of configurations is not considered. The truth of Kirchhoff's uniqueness theorem, which has reference to the ordinary equations of elasticity, in which powers of the displacement co-ordinates above the first are neglected, is sufficient proof of this statement. In practice it is generally sufficient to retain only the first and second order terms, and no terms of higher order are considered here. To obtain such equations an extended form of Hooke's Law is necessary; the extension made by Southwell is used in this paper. There are then two methods available for the derivation of the equations. Either we may obtain the three conditions for the equilibrium of an elementary volume of the substance by considering the forces acting upon it, or we may calculate the energy of strain correct to the third order of displacement co-ordinates, and deduce the equations by variation of this function. The first method has been used in one place here, as it would appear to be the simpler in the particular case of a plane plate, in which only one of the equations, and that the simplest, is required. However, the stability equations for a cylindrical shell are also obtained, and then all three equations are necessary. The derivation by the first method of each one of these is a laborious matter, while using the second method there is only one calculation, that of the strain energy function, to be made. Consequently, for this purpose, as in general, the second method seems to be preferable.

1,003 citations

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TL;DR: The third edition of Myers, Montgomery and Anderson-Cook's RSM book is much longer but it omits many important issues in RSM and its emphasis is on the analysis of experiments and the evaluation of designs rather than on design issues.

Abstract: (2010). Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, 3rd edition. Journal of Quality Technology: Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 228-230.

120 citations

### "Multidisciplinary design of the win..." refers methods in this paper

...Optimization of wings geometry As an optimization procedure a response surface methodology is used [8],[9]....

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01 Dec 1950

TL;DR: In this article, the minimum induced drag of a wing having a given lift and a given span is extended to include cases in which the bending moment to be supported by the wing is also given.

Abstract: The problem of the minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given span is extended to include cases in which the bending moment to be supported by the wing is also given. The theory is limited to lifting surfaces traveling at subsonic speeds. It is found that the required shape of the downwash distribution can be obtained in an elementary way which is applicable to a variety of such problems. Expressions for the minimum drag and the corresponding spanwise load distributions are also given for the case in which the lift and the bending moment about the wing root are fixed while the span is allowed to vary. The results show a 15-percent reduction of the induced drag with a 15-percent increase in span as compared with results for an elliptically loaded wing having the same total lift and bending moment.

103 citations