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Journal ArticleDOI

Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications

07 Nov 2002-IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics (IEEE)-Vol. 49, Iss: 4, pp 724-738

TL;DR: The most important topologies like diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-Clamped (flying capacitor), and cascaded multicell with separate DC sources are presented and the circuit topology options are presented.
Abstract: Multilevel inverter technology has emerged recently as a very important alternative in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy control. This paper presents the most important topologies like diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-clamped (flying capacitor), and cascaded multicell with separate DC sources. Emerging topologies like asymmetric hybrid cells and soft-switched multilevel inverters are also discussed. This paper also presents the most relevant control and modulation methods developed for this family of converters: multilevel sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation, multilevel selective harmonic elimination, and space-vector modulation. Special attention is dedicated to the latest and more relevant applications of these converters such as laminators, conveyor belts, and unified power-flow controllers. The need of an active front end at the input side for those inverters supplying regenerative loads is also discussed, and the circuit topology options are also presented. Finally, the peripherally developing areas such as high-voltage high-power devices and optical sensors and other opportunities for future development are addressed.
Topics: Space vector modulation (51%), Pulse-width modulation (51%), Converters (50%), H bridge (50%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New trends in power electronics for the integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generators are presented and a review of the appropriate storage-system technology used for the Integration of intermittent renewable energy sources is introduced.
Abstract: The use of distributed energy resources is increasingly being pursued as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power stations. The specification of a power-electronic interface is subject to requirements related not only to the renewable energy source itself but also to its effects on the power-system operation, especially where the intermittent energy source constitutes a significant part of the total system capacity. In this paper, new trends in power electronics for the integration of wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generators are presented. A review of the appropriate storage-system technology used for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources is also introduced. Discussions about common and future trends in renewable energy systems based on reliability and maturity of each technology are presented

3,446 citations


Cites background from "Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..."

  • ...Sometimes they are a multiple of 50 Hz, and sometimes they are not....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Samir Kouro1, Mariusz Malinowski2, K. Gopakumar3, Josep Pou  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry.
Abstract: Multilevel converters have been under research and development for more than three decades and have found successful industrial application. However, this is still a technology under development, and many new contributions and new commercial topologies have been reported in the last few years. The aim of this paper is to group and review these recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, to provide readers with a comprehensive and insightful review of where multilevel converter technology stands and is heading. This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry. In addition, new promising topologies are discussed. Recent advances made in modulation and control of multilevel converters are also addressed. A great part of this paper is devoted to show nontraditional applications powered by multilevel converters and how multilevel converters are becoming an enabling technology in many industrial sectors. Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of this technology are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

2,953 citations


Cites background from "Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..."

  • ...of electronic power conversion for high power applications [1]–[10]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2003-
Abstract: This paper presents a new multilevel converter topology suitable for very high voltage applications, especially network interties in power generation and transmission. The fundamental concept and the applied control scheme is introduced. Simulation results of a 36 MW-network intertie illustrate the efficient operating characteristics. A suitable structure of the converter-control is proposed.

2,517 citations


Cites background from "Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..."

  • ...For this application field multilevel converters with a high number of voltage levels seem to be the most suitable types, because of the need for series connection of semiconductors in combination with low voltage distortion on the line side [1]-[3]....

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  • ...Finally, due to the expression of the reference vector by the determined surrounding vectors, the correspondent dwelling times have to be calculated [3]-[6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Jose Rodriguez1, Steffen Bernet2, Bin Wu3, J. Pontt4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: This paper covers the high-power voltage-source inverter and the most used multilevel-inverter topologies, including the neutral-point-clamped, cascaded H-bridge, and flying-capacitor converters.
Abstract: This paper presents a technology review of voltage-source-converter topologies for industrial medium-voltage drives. In this highly active area, different converter topologies and circuits have found their application in the market. This paper covers the high-power voltage-source inverter and the most used multilevel-inverter topologies, including the neutral-point-clamped, cascaded H-bridge, and flying-capacitor converters. This paper presents the operating principle of each topology and a review of the most relevant modulation methods, focused mainly on those used by industry. In addition, the latest advances and future trends of the technology are discussed. It is concluded that the topology and modulation-method selection are closely related to each particular application, leaving a space on the market for all the different solutions, depending on their unique features and limitations like power or voltage level, dynamic performance, reliability, costs, and other technical specifications.

2,051 citations


Cites background or methods from "Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..."

  • ...Although ML-VSIs were originally developed to reach higher voltage operation, before being restricted by semiconductor limits, the extra switches and sources (provided by multiple dc-link capacitors) could be used to generate different output-voltage levels, enabling the generation of a stepped waveform with less harmonic distortion, reducing dv/dt’s and common-mode voltages, and enabling operation under fault conditions and converter modularity [21]....

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  • ...Multilevel-converter technology has experienced a fast growing attention in the last decade, and several topologies have been reported [21]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of different topologies, control strategies and modulation techniques used by cascaded multilevel inverters in the medium-voltage inverter market is presented.
Abstract: Cascaded multilevel inverters synthesize a medium-voltage output based on a series connection of power cells which use standard low-voltage component configurations. This characteristic allows one to achieve high-quality output voltages and input currents and also outstanding availability due to their intrinsic component redundancy. Due to these features, the cascaded multilevel inverter has been recognized as an important alternative in the medium-voltage inverter market. This paper presents a survey of different topologies, control strategies and modulation techniques used by these inverters. Regenerative and advanced topologies are also discussed. Applications where the mentioned features play a key role are shown. Finally, future developments are addressed.

1,872 citations


Cites background from "Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..."

  • ...MULTILEVEL voltage-source inverters provide a costeffective solution in the medium-voltage energy management market [1]....

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References
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01 Jan 1980-
Abstract: A new neutral-point-clamped pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter composed of main switching devices which operate as switches for PWM and auxiliary switching devices to clamp the output terminal potential to the neutral point potential has been developed. This inverter output contains less harmonic content as compared with that of a conventional type. Two inverters are compared analytically and experimentally. In addition, a new PWM technique suitable for an ac drive system is applied to this inverter. The neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter adopting the new PWM technique shows an excellent drive system efficiency, including motor efficiency, and is appropriate for a wide-range variable-speed drive system.

4,249 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter adopting the new PWM technique shows an excellent drive system efficiency, including motor efficiency, and is appropriate for a wide-range variable-speed drive system.
Abstract: A new neutral-point-clamped pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter composed of main switching devices which operate as switches for PWM and auxiliary switching devices to clamp the output terminal potential to the neutral point potential has been developed. This inverter output contains less harmonic content as compared with that of a conventional type. Two inverters are compared analytically and experimentally. In addition, a new PWM technique suitable for an ac drive system is applied to this inverter. The neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter adopting the new PWM technique shows an excellent drive system efficiency, including motor efficiency, and is appropriate for a wide-range variable-speed drive system.

4,089 citations


"Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Three different topologies have been proposed for multilevel inverters: diode-clamped (neutral-clamped) [4]; capac-...

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
Jih-Sheng Lai1, Fang Zheng PengInstitutions (1)
08 Oct 1995-
TL;DR: This paper presents three multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate DC sources.
Abstract: Multilevel voltage source converters are emerging as a new breed of power converter options for high-power applications. The multilevel voltage source converters typically synthesize the staircase voltage wave from several levels of DC capacitor voltages. One of the major limitations of the multilevel converters is the voltage unbalance between different levels. The techniques to balance the voltage between different levels normally involve voltage clamping or capacitor charge control. There are several ways of implementing voltage balance in multilevel converters. Without considering the traditional magnetic coupled converters, this paper presents three recently developed multilevel voltage source converters: (1) diode-clamp, (2) flying-capacitors, and (3) cascaded-inverters with separate DC sources. The operating principle, features, constraints, and potential applications of these converters are discussed.

3,134 citations


"Multilevel inverters: a survey of t..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Three different topologies have been proposed for multilevel inverters: diode-clamped (neutral-clamped) [4]; capacitor-clamped (flying capacitors) [1], [5], [6]; and cascaded multicell with separate dc sources [ 1 ], [7]‐[9]....

    [...]

  • ...Three different topologies have been proposed for multilevel inverters: diode-clamped (neutral-clamped) [4]; capacitor-clamped (flying capacitors) [ 1 ], [5], [6]; and cascaded multicell with separate dc sources [1], [7]‐[9]....

    [...]

  • ...The circuit has been called the flying capacitor inverter [ 1 ], [5], [6] with independent capacitors clamping the device voltage to one capacitor voltage level....

    [...]

  • ...For these reasons, a new family of multilevel inverters has emerged as the solution for working with higher voltage levels [ 1 ]‐[3]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
M. Depenbrock1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The new direct self-control (DSC) is a simple method of signal processing that gives converter-fed three-phase machines an excellent dynamic performance. To control the torque of, say, an induction motor, it is sufficient to process the measured signals of the stator currents and the total flux linkages only. In the basic version of DSC, the power semiconductors of a three-phase voltage source inverter are directly switched on and off via three Schmitt triggers, comparing the time integrals of line-to-line voltages to a reference value of desired flux, if the torque has not yet reached an upper-limit value of a two-limit torque control. Optimal performance of drive systems is accomplished in steady state as well as under transient conditions by combination of several two-limit controls. >

1,674 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the back-to-back diode-clamped converter over two-level pulsewidth-modulation-based drives.
Abstract: This paper presents transformerless multilevel power converters as an application for high-power and/or high-voltage electric motor drives. Multilevel converters: (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference or common-mode voltage; and (3) are suitable for large voltampere-rated motor drives and high voltages. The cascade inverter is a natural fit for large automotive all-electric drives because it uses several levels of DC voltage sources, which would be available from batteries or fuel cells. The back-to-back diode-clamped converter is ideal where a source of AC voltage is available, such as in a hybrid electric vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show the superiority of these two converters over two-level pulsewidth-modulation-based drives.

1,327 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
202212
2021290
2020366
2019434
2018471
2017489