# Multiparty Quantum Communication Using Multiqubit Entanglement and Teleportation

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a qubit entangled channel that can be used to teleport qubits in a network to a single receiver, where all parties have to participate in order for the teleportation to be successful.

Abstract: We propose a qubit entangled channel that can be used to teleport qubits in a network to a single receiver. We describe the structure of this channel and explicitly demonstrate how the protocol works. The channel can be used to implement a scheme in which all parties have to participate in order for the teleportation to be successful. This can be advantageous in various scenarios and we discuss the potential application of this protocol to voting.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reported preparation of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles doped PVA/PVP polymer nanocomposites by solvent casting technique and showed that the optical energy gap decreases with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles.

Abstract: We report preparation of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles doped PVA/PVP polymer nanocomposites by solvent casting technique. FTIR spectra and XRD studies signify the structural modifications taking place in the nanocomposites. The optical energy gap decreases by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength and Young’s modulus are enhanced by the addition of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. The Fluorescence studies indicate that photoluminescence intensity is maximum for 4 wt% doping concentration of TiO2. The AFM analysis provides information about the surface roughness of the polymer film. The dielectric plot shows that the dielectric constant increases up to 12 wt% doping of TiO2, a further increase in the doping concentration results in the reduction of dielectric constant. The dielectric constant decreases with an increase in the frequency for all the films. The above properties show TiO2 doped PVA/PVP nanocomposite films are a prominent material for potential applications.

120 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a quantum binary voting protocol is proposed and implemented in the 14-qubit IBM Q 14 Melbourne quantum processor and the results are analyzed through the technique of quantum state tomography, and the fidelity of states is calculated for different number of executions made in the device.

Abstract: Quantum secret sharing is a way to share secret messages among the clients in a group with complete security. For the first time, Hillery et al. (Phys Rev A 59:1829, 1999) proposed the quantum version of classical secret sharing protocol using GHZ states. Here, we implement the above quantum secret sharing protocol in ‘IBM Q 5 Tenerife’ quantum processor and compare the experimentally obtained results with the theoretically predicted ones. Further, a new quantum binary voting protocol is proposed and implemented in the 14-qubit ‘IBM Q 14 Melbourne’ quantum processor. The results are analyzed through the technique of quantum state tomography, and the fidelity of states is calculated for different number of executions made in the device.

19 citations

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TL;DR: This paper studies a connection between tensor networks states and dynamic quantum state secret sharing (QSS) based on the Affleck–Kennedy–Lieb–Tasaki (AKLT) model and parametric families of tensor network states.

Abstract: A quantum network consists of multiple entanglement sources that distribute entangled quantum states to spatially dispersed nodes. This allows the quantum states in nodes to be processed locally. Tensors connected by a contraction can be regarded as tensor networks, in which quantum states are described by tensors. A tensor network state can also be expressed by a graph. Since the advent of quantum computing, people have paid more and more attention to the theory and application of tensor network states (TNS). In this paper, we study a connection between tensor networks states and dynamic quantum state secret sharing (QSS) based on the Affleck–Kennedy–Lieb–Tasaki (AKLT) model and parametric families of tensor network states. The ground state of the AKLT model is a simple quantum state in the form of the matrix product state (MPS), which is one of the well-known tensor network states. The parametric family of tensor network states is represented by the multiplication of some matrices and the tensor network states. The diversity of MPS representations, matrix factorization and matrix multiplication, and the simple graphical representation of TNS provide excellent tools for building new applications in the field of QSS and information security in quantum networks. Moreover, our QSS schemes are dynamic because many-body states used in our schemes are represented by the matrix product state (MPS) and parametric families of tensor network states respectively, which can be dynamically adjusted.

5 citations

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11 Jul 2016

TL;DR: It is proved that secure quantum routing protects both the contents of the message and the identity of the sender and receiver, and creates only a negligible reduction in the network channel capacity.

Abstract: We show that a quantum network can protect the identity of a sender and receiver from an external wiretapper. This new quantum communication protocol, which we call secure quantum routing, requires only single photons routed by linear optical elements and photon counters, and does not require distributing entanglement over multiple nodes or active feedforward. We prove that secure quantum routing protects both the contents of the message and the identity of the sender and receiver, and creates only a negligible reduction in the network channel capacity.

3 citations

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31 Dec 2015

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state and discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported.

Abstract: We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.

2 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: An unknown quantum state \ensuremath{\Vert}\ensure Math{\varphi}〉 can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely classical information and purely nonclassical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations.

Abstract: An unknown quantum state \ensuremath{\Vert}\ensuremath{\varphi}〉 can be disassembled into, then later reconstructed from, purely classical information and purely nonclassical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. To do so the sender, ``Alice,'' and the receiver, ``Bob,'' must prearrange the sharing of an EPR-correlated pair of particles. Alice makes a joint measurement on her EPR particle and the unknown quantum system, and sends Bob the classical result of this measurement. Knowing this, Bob can convert the state of his EPR particle into an exact replica of the unknown state \ensuremath{\Vert}\ensuremath{\varphi}〉 which Alice destroyed.

11,600 citations

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Williams College

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of a pair of binary quantum objects (qubits) as a function of their density matrix was conjectured.

Abstract: The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state $\ensuremath{\rho}$ is the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that represents \ensuremath{\rho}. An earlier paper conjectured an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of a pair of binary quantum objects (qubits) as a function of their density matrix, and proved the formula for special states. The present paper extends the proof to arbitrary states of this system and shows how to construct entanglement-minimizing decompositions.

6,999 citations

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TL;DR: This work shows how GHZ states can be used to split quantum information into two parts so that both parts are necessary to reconstruct the original qubit.

Abstract: Secret sharing is a procedure for splitting a message into several parts so that no subset of parts is sufficient to read the message, but the entire set is. We show how this procedure can be implemented using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. In the quantum case the presence of an eavesdropper will introduce errors so that his presence can be detected. We also show how GHZ states can be used to split quantum information into two parts so that both parts are necessary to reconstruct the original qubit.

2,789 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a two-particle quantum entanglement protocol for secret sharing and splitting was proposed. But the secrecy sharing protocol must be carefully designed in order to detect eavesdropping or a dishonest participant.

Abstract: We show how a quantum secret sharing protocol, similar to that of Hillery, Buzek, and Berthiaume (Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9806063), can be implemented using two-particle quantum entanglement, as available experimentally today. We also discuss in some detail how both two- and three-particle protocols must be carefully designed in order to detect eavesdropping or a dishonest participant. We also discuss the extension of a multiparticle entanglement secret sharing and splitting scheme toward a protocol so that m of n persons with $ml~n$ can retrieve the secret.

861 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the teleportation of a quantum state using three-particle entanglement to either one of two receivers in such a way that, generally, either one or both receivers can fully reconstruct the quantum state conditioned on the measurement outcome of the other.

Abstract: We investigate the ``teleportation'' of a quantum state using three-particle entanglement to either one of two receivers in such a way that, generally, either one of the two, but only one, can fully reconstruct the quantum state conditioned on the measurement outcome of the other. We furthermore delineate the similarities between this process and a quantum nondemolition measurement.

770 citations