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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26051359

Mushroom-Derived Bioactive Molecules as Immunotherapeutic Agents: A Review.

04 Mar 2021-Molecules (MDPI AG)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 1359
Abstract: Mushrooms with enhanced medicinal properties focus on finding such compounds that could modulate the human body’s immune systems. Mushrooms have antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties due to the presence of various bioactive components. β-glucans are the major constituent of the mushroom cell wall and play a significant role in their biological activity. This review described the techniques used in the extraction of the active ingredients from the mushroom. We highlighted the structure of the bioactive polysaccharides present in the mushrooms. Therapeutic applications of different mushrooms were also described. It is interesting to note that mushrooms have the potential sources of many bioactive products that can regulate immunity. Thus, the development of functional medicinal food based on the mushroom is vital for human welfare.

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Topics: Mushroom (57%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.FOODRES.2021.110599
Abstract: Mushrooms have been recognized for their culinary attributes for long and were relished in the most influential civilizations in history. Currently, they are the focus of renewed research because of their therapeutic abilities. Nutritional benefits from mushrooms are in the form of a significant source of essential proteins, dietary non-digestible carbohydrates, unsaturated fats, minerals, as well as various vitamins, which have enhanced its consumption, and also resulted in the development of various processed mushroom products. Mushrooms are also a crucial ingredient in traditional medicine for their healing potential and curative properties. The literature on the nutritional, nutraceutical, and therapeutic potential of mushrooms, and their use as functional foods for the maintenance of health was reviewed, and the available literature indicates the enormous potential of the bioactive compounds present in mushrooms. Future research should be focused on the development of processes to retain the mushroom bioactive components, and valorization of waste generated during processing. Further, the mechanisms of action of mushroom bioactive components should be studied in detail to delineate their diverse roles and functions in the prevention and treatment of several diseases.

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Topics: Mushroom (51%)

7 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JFBC.13748
Abstract: Mushrooms are consumed for their nutrients and therapeutic bioactive compounds and are used medicinally in Chinese and Japanese medicine traditions since time immemorial. Members of the genus Pleurotus form a heterogeneous group of edible species with outstanding nutritional profiles rich in fiber, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, ergosterine, and niacin), micro and macro-elements (phosphorus and iron), and carbohydrates. Pleurotus is one of the most diversified medicinal and edible mushrooms related to the composition of chemical structures such as polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and secondary metabolites such as alkaloids and betalains. The cultivation of Pleurotus spp. on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economically and cost-effective organic recycling processes, especially for the utilization of different feasible and cheap recyclable residues. Also, several Pleurotus spp. have the ability to remove phenolic compounds from wastewater with the action of phenoloxidase activity. Here, we have reviewed the chemistry of such polysaccharides and their reported biological activities, namely, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, antioxidant, etc. The mechanism of action and effects of novel polysaccharides extracted from various species of Pleurotus have been studied. The current study will be beneficial for guiding future research projects on the above concept and investigating more deeply the health of human beings. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Mushrooms are one of the most delicious foods around the globe and have many medicinal properties for decades. Various Pleurotus species have been in focus in recent years because of their palatability and medicinal importance too. It contains many bioactive compounds among which polysaccharides are valued to a great extent. Many biological activities are exerted by polysaccharides derived from the Pleurotus spp., namely, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and many more. They are responsible for significant physiological responses in animals, animal-alternative in vitro models, and humans. Their important physicochemical characteristics benefit their use in the food industry as well. So, the biological activities of these Pleurotus spp. polysaccharides will provide an insight to develop Pleurotus spp. as functional foods, because of their nutritional value and presence of bioactive components.

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Topics: Pleurotus (62%), Ascorbic acid (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/FOODS10092015
Attila Kiss1, Petra Grünvald2, Márta Ladányi2, Viktor Papp2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
27 Aug 2021-Foods
Abstract: The effect of heat treatment on dried fruiting bodies of Reishi medicinal mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) is investigated. Control and samples treated for 20 min at temperatures of 70, 120, 150 and 180 °C were subjected for their free radical scavenging capacity, different glucans and total phenolic content determination. The growth rate of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei supplemented with control and heat-treated samples is also investigated. The roasted mushroom samples at 150 °C and 180 °C showed the highest level of β-glucan (37.82%) and free radical scavenging capacity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+). The content of total phenolics (TPC) was also influenced by heat treatment and significantly higher TPC values were recorded in samples treated at 120 °C and 150 °C. The presence of reducing sugars was only detected after heat treatment at 150 °C (0.23%) and at 180 °C (0.57%). The heat treatments at 120, 150 and 180 °C, significantly attenuated the number of colony-forming units (CFU) of pathogenic E. coli, in a linear relationship with an elevated temperature. The supplementation of heat-treated Reishi mushroom at 120 °C resulted in the highest growth rate of probiotic L. casei. The obtained results in this study revealed the significant effect of short-term heat treatment by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, β-glucan solubility and prebiotic property of the dried basidiocarp of Reishi mushroom.

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Topics: Beta-glucan (52%), Mushroom (52%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JICS.2021.100146
Xin-wei Bai, Xin-feng Bai1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In this paper, a crude polysaccharide (PDI) was extracted from D. indusiata volva. The antioxidant activities of PDI were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and ABTS radicals scavenge assay. The results showed that PDI had antioxidant activities in all these assays, indicating that it could be used as an antioxidant. Then a rapid and highly efficient micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method coupled with diode array detector was developed to determine the monosaccharides composition of the polysaccharide sample. The optimum conditions were as follows: 20 ​mM borate (pH ​= ​9.3) and 15 ​mM SDS as the electrophoresis medium, the separation temperature was 20 ​°C. Under these conditions, monosaccharides could be separated within 8 ​min. The polysaccharide of the volva was mainly composed of glucose, mannose, galactose and arabinose.

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Topics: Monosaccharide (53%), ABTS (53%), DPPH (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26154623
30 Jul 2021-Molecules
Abstract: In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis a vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.

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Topics: Pleurotus ostreatus (60%), Lentinula (56%), ABTS (53%) ... read more

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126 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BBAMCR.2011.01.034
Abstract: Interleukin-6 is a cytokine not only involved in inflammation and infection responses but also in the regulation of metabolic, regenerative, and neural processes. In classic signaling, interleukin-6 stimulates target cells via a membrane bound interleukin-6 receptor, which upon ligand binding associates with the signaling receptor protein gp130. Gp130 dimerizes, leading to the activation of Janus kinases and subsequent phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic portion of gp130. This leads to the engagement of phosphatase Src homology domains containing tyrosin phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) and activation of the ras/raf/Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) pathway. In addition, signal transducer and activator of transcription factors are recruited, which are phosphorylated, and consequently dimerize whereupon they translocate into the nucleus and activate target genes. Interestingly, only few cells express membrane bound interleukin-6 receptor whereas all cells display gp130 on the cell surface. While cells, which only express gp130, are not responsive to interleukin-6 alone, they can respond to a complex of interleukin-6 bound to a naturally occurring soluble form of the interleukin-6 receptor. Therefore, the generation of soluble form of the interleukin-6 receptor dramatically enlarges the spectrum of interleukin-6 target cells. This process has been named trans-signaling. Here, we review the involvement of both signaling modes in the biology of interleukin-6. It turns out that regenerative or anti-inflammatory activities of interleukin-6 are mediated by classic signaling whereas pro-inflammatory responses of interleukin-6 are rather mediated by trans-signaling. This is important since therapeutic blockade of interleukin-6 by the neutralizing anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab has recently been approved for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium.

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Topics: Interleukin-13 receptor (63%), JAK-STAT signaling pathway (62%), Glycoprotein 130 (61%) ... read more

2,224 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00253-002-1076-7
Solomon P. Wasser1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, culture broth. Data on mushroom polysaccharides have been collected from 651 species and 7 infraspecific taxa from 182 genera of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. These polysaccharides are of different chemical composition, with most belonging to the group of β-glucans; these have β-(1→3) linkages in the main chain of the glucan and additional β-(1→6) branch points that are needed for their antitumor action. High molecular weight glucans appear to be more effective than those of low molecular weight. Chemical modification is often carried out to improve the antitumor activity of polysaccharides and their clinical qualities (mostly water solubility). The main procedures used for chemical improvement are: Smith degradation (oxydo-reducto-hydrolysis), formolysis, and carboxymethylation. Most of the clinical evidence for antitumor activity comes from the commercial polysaccharides lentinan, PSK (krestin), and schizophyllan, but polysaccharides of some other promising medicinal mushroom species also show good results. Their activity is especially beneficial in clinics when used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Mushroom polysaccharides prevent oncogenesis, show direct antitumor activity against various allogeneic and syngeneic tumors, and prevent tumor metastasis. Polysaccharides from mushrooms do not attack cancer cells directly, but produce their antitumor effects by activating different immune responses in the host. The antitumor action of polysaccharides requires an intact T-cell component; their activity is mediated through a thymus-dependent immune mechanism. Practical application is dependent not only on biological properties, but also on biotechnological availability. The present review analyzes the pecularities of polysaccharides derived from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelium (the two main methods of biotechnological production today) in selected examples of medicinal mushrooms.

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Topics: Mushroom (54%), Modern medicine (51%)

1,811 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TIFS.2005.12.004
Lijun Wang1, Curtis L. Weller1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Various novel techniques including ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction have been developed for the extraction of nutraceuticals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield, and enhance the quality of extracts. A critical review was conducted to introduce and compare the conventional Soxhlet extraction and the new alternative methods used for the extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. The practical issues of each extraction method were discussed. Potential uses of those methods for the extraction of nutraceuticals from plant materials was finally summarized.

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1,562 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20021890
Abstract: The ability of fungal-derived β-glucan particles to induce leukocyte activation and the production of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, is a well characterized phenomenon. Although efforts have been made to understand how these carbohydrate polymers exert their immunomodulatory effects, the receptors involved in generating these responses are unknown. Here we show that Dectin-1 mediates the production of TNF-α in response to zymosan and live fungal pathogens, an activity that occurs at the cell surface and requires the cytoplasmic tail and immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif of Dectin-1 as well as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and Myd88. This is the first demonstration that the inflammatory response to pathogens requires recognition by a specific receptor in addition to the TLRs. Furthermore, these studies implicate Dectin-1 in the production of TNF-α in response to fungi, a critical step required for the successful control of these pathogens.

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Topics: Zymosan (53%), Receptor (51%)

1,086 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2014/561459
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of human joints. The basis of pathologic changes involves all the tissues forming the joint; already, at an early stage, it has the nature of inflammation with varying degrees of severity. An analysis of the complex relationships indicates that the processes taking place inside the joint are not merely a set that (seemingly) only includes catabolic effects. Apart from them, anti-inflammatory anabolic processes also occur continually. These phenomena are driven by various mediators, of which the key role is attributed to the interactions within the cytokine network. The most important group controlling the disease seems to be inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, and IL-18. The second group with antagonistic effect is formed by cytokines known as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of OA with respect to inter- and intracellular signaling pathways is still under investigation. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge. The cytokine network in OA is put in the context of cells involved in this degenerative joint disease. The possibilities for further implementation of new therapeutic strategies in OA are also pointed.

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Topics: Proinflammatory cytokine (57%)

817 Citations


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